How to format your references using the Drug Metabolism and Disposition citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drug Metabolism and Disposition. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Tanner KE (2012) Materials science. Small but extremely tough. Science 336:1237–1238.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cowan CR, and Hyman AA (2004) Centrosomes direct cell polarity independently of microtubule assembly in C. elegans embryos. Nature 431:92–96.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ghoshal G, Chi L, and Barabási A-L (2013) Uncovering the role of elementary processes in network evolution. Sci Rep 3:2920.
A journal article with 99 or more authors
Brown S, Heinisch I, Ross E, Shaw K, Buckley CD, and Savill J (2002) Apoptosis disables CD31-mediated cell detachment from phagocytes promoting binding and engulfment. Nature 418:200–203.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society (TMS) (2011) Supplemental Proceedings, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Howard RJ, and Gow NAR (eds) (2007) Biology of the Fungal Cell, 2nd Edition, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Ferronsky VI, Denisik SA, and Ferronsky SV (2011) Perturbed Virial Oscillations of a System, in Jacobi Dynamics: A Unified Theory with Applications to Geophysics, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics and Cosmology (Denisik SA, and Ferronsky SV eds) pp 123–137, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drug Metabolism and Disposition.

Blog post
Fang J (2016) Polar Bears Must Swim For Several Days At A Time In The Melting Arctic, IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2012) Intelligent Transportation Systems: Improved DOT Collaboration and Communication Could Enhance the Use of Technology to Manage Congestion, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reehal G (2012) Designing Low Power and High Performance Network-on-Chip Communication Architectures for Nanometer SoCs, Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kasich J (2016) Welfare Is Still Broken.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Tanner, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Cowan and Hyman, 2004; Tanner, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cowan and Hyman, 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Brown et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleDrug Metabolism and Disposition
AbbreviationDrug Metab. Dispos.
ISSN (print)0090-9556
ISSN (online)1521-009X
ScopePharmaceutical Science

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