How to format your references using the Drug Discovery Today: Disease Models citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drug Discovery Today: Disease Models. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Trivedi BP. Neuroscience: Dissecting appetite. Nature 2014;508:S64-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mo F, Dong G. C-H bond activation. Regioselective ketone α-alkylation with simple olefins via dual activation. Science 2014;345:68–72.
A journal article with 3 authors
Semmann D, Krambeck H-J, Milinski M. Volunteering leads to rock-paper-scissors dynamics in a public goods game. Nature 2003;425:390–3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Roe HG, Brown ME, Schaller EL, Bouchez AH, Trujillo CA. Geographic control of Titan’s mid-latitude clouds. Science 2005;310:477–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Prazeres DMF. Plasmid Biopharmaceuticals. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Yamakawa H. Helical Wormlike Chains in Polymer Solutions. 2nd ed. 2016. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Kandaswamy C, Silva LM, Cardoso JS. Source-Target-Source Classification Using Stacked Denoising Autoencoders. In: Paredes R, Cardoso JS, Pardo XM, editors. Pattern Recognition and Image Analysis: 7th Iberian Conference, IbPRIA 2015, Santiago de Compostela, Spain, June 17-19, 2015, Proceedings, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015, p. 39–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drug Discovery Today: Disease Models.

Blog post
Hale T. This Is What The Internet Looked Like In 1973. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: The Changing Status of Competition to Cable Television. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perez RW. Stepping Stone or Stumbling Block? The Impact of Prior Military Service on Hiring Managers’ Perceptions of Warmth, Competence, and Hirability. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. Unseen Ingredients: Cash, and Lots of Time. New York Times 2016:WE9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrug Discovery Today: Disease Models
AbbreviationDrug Discov. Today Dis. Models
ISSN (print)1740-6757
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Drug Discovery

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