How to format your references using the Drug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Sack FD. Plant sciences. Yoda would be proud: valves for land plants. Science 2004;304:1461–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Lowell TV, Kelly MA. Climate. Was the Younger Dryas global? Science 2008;321:348–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Herbst J, Heyne K, Diller R. Femtosecond infrared spectroscopy of bacteriorhodopsin chromophore isomerization. Science 2002;297:822–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Shepherd A, Wingham DJ, Mansley JA, Corr HF. Inland thinning of Pine Island Glacier, West Antarctica. Science 2001;291:862–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Bagdonavičius V, Kruopis J, Nikulin MS. Non-parametric Tests for Censored Data. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2011.
An edited book
[1]
Kuznetsov SO, Ślęzak D, Hepting DH, Mirkin BG, editors. Rough Sets, Fuzzy Sets, Data Mining and Granular Computing: 13th International Conference, RSFDGrC 2011, Moscow, Russia, June 25-27, 2011. Proceedings. vol. 6743. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Lipman J, Hashimoto M. Derived Direct and Inverse Image. In: Hashimoto M, editor. Foundations of Grothendieck Duality for Diagrams of Schemes, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009, p. 83–158.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms.

Blog post
[1]
Luntz S. Early Diverging Group of Humans Survived Until 2,300 Years Ago. IFLScience 2014. https://www.iflscience.com/health-and-medicine/early-diverging-group-humans-survived-until-2300-years-ago/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Spectrum Management: Incentives, Opportunities, and Testing Needed to Enhance Spectrum Sharing. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Lee J. The Effects of Leadership Behavior on Workplace Harassment, Employee Outcomes, and Organizational Effectiveness in Small Businesses. Doctoral dissertation. George Washington University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Protess B. MF Global’s Fall May Cost Corzine About $5 Million. New York Times 2016:B1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms
AbbreviationDrug Discov. Today Dis. Mech.
ISSN (print)1740-6765
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Drug Discovery

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