How to format your references using the Drug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Drug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Spurgeon D. Canada tries to limit nanotech brain drain. Nature 2000;408:623.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Bunge HP, Grand SP. Mesozoic plate-motion history below the northeast Pacific Ocean from seismic images of the subducted Farallon slab. Nature 2000;405:337–40.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Ofstad TA, Zuker CS, Reiser MB. Visual place learning in Drosophila melanogaster. Nature 2011;474:204–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Zhou Z, Kong B, Yu C, Shi X, Wang M, Liu W, et al. Tungsten oxide nanorods: an efficient nanoplatform for tumor CT imaging and photothermal therapy. Sci Rep 2014;4:3653.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Bayés de Luna A. Clinical Arrhythmology. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2011.
An edited book
[1]
Spink A, Cole C, editors. New Directions in Cognitive Information Retrieval. vol. 19. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Fleishman GD, Toptygin IN. Wave–Particle and Wave–Wave Interactions. In: Toptygin IN, editor. Cosmic Electrodynamics: Electrodynamics and Magnetic Hydrodynamics of Cosmic Plasmas, New York, NY: Springer; 2013, p. 139–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Drug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Watch Bill Nye Read Out Some Of The Hilarious Mean Tweets Sent To Him. IFLScience 2015.

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Biosurveillance: Observations on the Cancellation of BioWatch Gen-3 and Future Considerations for the Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Powell JR. Ocean fronts in the Southern California Current System and their role in structuring zooplankton distributions, diel vertical migration, and size composition. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego, 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Gustines GG. Sharing the Wealth as a Comic Book Goes Hollywood. New York Times 2013:BU5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDrug Discovery Today: Disease Mechanisms
AbbreviationDrug Discov. Today Dis. Mech.
ISSN (print)1740-6765
ScopeMolecular Medicine
Drug Discovery

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