How to format your references using the Diseases of the Colon & Rectum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diseases of the Colon & Rectum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dearing A. Enabling Europe to innovate. Science. 2007;315(5810):344-347.
A journal article with 2 authors
Yarger JL, Wolf GH. Chemistry. Polymorphism in liquids. Science. 2004;306(5697):820-821.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mitchell MW, Lundeen JS, Steinberg AM. Super-resolving phase measurements with a multiphoton entangled state. Nature. 2004;429(6988):161-164.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Di Paolo G, Pellegrini L, Letinic K, et al. Recruitment and regulation of phosphatidylinositol phosphate kinase type 1 gamma by the FERM domain of talin. Nature. 2002;420(6911):85-89.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Neil PV. Beginning Partial Differential Equations. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Metaxas DN, Axel L, eds. Functional Imaging and Modeling of the Heart: 6th International Conference, FIMH 2011, New York City, NY, USA, May 25-27, 2011. Proceedings. Vol 6666. Springer; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
Khurana R, Simons M. Endothelial Activation and Neointimal Hyperplasia: A Double-Edged Sword. In: Deindl E, Kupatt C, eds. Therapeutic Neovascularization–Quo Vadis?. Springer Netherlands; 2007:75-84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diseases of the Colon & Rectum.

Blog post
Andrew E. Live Webcast of Supernova. IFLScience. Published September 17, 2014. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Transportation Security R&D: TSA and DHS Are Researching and Developing Technologies, but Need to Improve R&D Management. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberson BN. Motivation towards learning perceived in Socratic seminar versus traditional lecture. Published online 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gregory Mankiw N. A Better Way to Grade Presidents. New York Times. January 29, 2016:BU5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDiseases of the Colon & Rectum
AbbreviationDis. Colon Rectum
ISSN (print)0012-3706
ISSN (online)1530-0358
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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