How to format your references using the Diseases of the Colon & Rectum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diseases of the Colon & Rectum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gammon K. Drugs: Blood battles. Nature. 2013;493(7434):S14-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Nisbet MC, Mooney C. Science and society. Framing Science. Science. 2007;316(5821):56.
A journal article with 3 authors
Skourti-Stathaki K, Kamieniarz-Gdula K, Proudfoot NJ. R-loops induce repressive chromatin marks over mammalian gene terminators. Nature. 2014;516(7531):436-439.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lin H-K, Chen Z, Wang G, et al. Skp2 targeting suppresses tumorigenesis by Arf-p53-independent cellular senescence. Nature. 2010;464(7287):374-379.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Roy D, Rao GV. Elements of Structural Dynamics. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Hell R, Dahl C, Knaff D, Leustek T, eds. Sulfur Metabolism in Phototrophic Organisms. Vol 27. Springer Netherlands; 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Jähnig N, Göthel T, Glesner S. Refinement-Based Verification of Communicating Unstructured Code. In: De Nicola R, Kühn E, eds. Software Engineering and Formal Methods: 14th International Conference, SEFM 2016, Held as Part of STAF 2016, Vienna, Austria, July 4-8, 2016, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing; 2016:61-75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diseases of the Colon & Rectum.

Blog post
Luntz S. Scientists Retract Paper That Said Being Sad Makes It Harder To See Colors. IFLScience. Published November 9, 2015. Accessed October 30, 2018.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Education Research: Further Improvements Needed to Ensure Relevance and Assess Dissemination Efforts. U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Araki PR. Golden Years Home Residential Care Facility for the Elderly. Published online 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus S. Just Dance. New York Times. July 20, 2016:MM20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDiseases of the Colon & Rectum
AbbreviationDis. Colon Rectum
ISSN (print)0012-3706
ISSN (online)1530-0358
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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