How to format your references using the Disease Models & Mechanisms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Disease Models & Mechanisms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Todes, D. (2009). Global Darwin: Contempt for competition. Nature 462, 36–37.
A journal article with 2 authors
Oka, T. and McCall, B. J. (2011). Astronomy. Disclosing identities in diffuse interstellar bands. Science 331, 293–294.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wookey, J., Kendall, J.-M. and Barruol, G. (2002). Mid-mantle deformation inferred from seismic anisotropy. Nature 415, 777–780.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Xiao-Hong, Z., Lan-Hua, L., Wei-Qi, X., Bao-Dong, S., Jian-Wu, S., Miao, H. and Han-Chang, S. (2014). A reusable evanescent wave immunosensor for highly sensitive detection of bisphenol A in water samples. Sci. Rep. 4, 4572.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jayaweera, S. K. (2014). Signal Processing for Cognitive Radios. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Mikhailov, A. V. ed. (2009). Integrability. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Smith, M., Zagelmeyer, S. and Sieglen, G. (2009). Small and Medium-sized Establishments in Europe: Operating Hours and Working Time Patterns. In Comparative Analyses of Operating Hours and Working Times in the European Union (ed. Smith, M.), Cette, G.), Bauer, F.), and Delsen, L.), pp. 117–142. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Disease Models & Mechanisms.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2017). How The Horse Can Help Us Answer One Of Evolution’s Biggest Questions. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1997). NASA: Major Management Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Caldretti, M. (2017). Vocal Pedagogy and the Adolescent Female Singing Voice.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K. (2008). Saturday Bustle. New York Times NJ16.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Todes, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Oka and McCall, 2011; Todes, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Oka and McCall, 2011)
  • Three or more authors: (Xiao-Hong et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDisease Models & Mechanisms
AbbreviationDis. Model. Mech.
ISSN (print)1754-8403
ISSN (online)1754-8411
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Immunology and Microbiology (miscellaneous)
Medicine (miscellaneous)
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

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