How to format your references using the Disease Models & Mechanisms citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Disease Models & Mechanisms. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Mejia, R. (2008). Taking the industry road. Nature 453, 1138–1139.
A journal article with 2 authors
Phillips, P. and Dalidovich, D. (2003). The elusive Bose metal. Science 302, 243–247.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wood, B. J., Walter, M. J. and Wade, J. (2006). Accretion of the Earth and segregation of its core. Nature 441, 825–833.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Liu, B., Han, L., Duan, Y., Cao, Y., Feng, J., Yao, Y. and Che, S. (2014). Growth of optically active chiral inorganic films through DNA self-assembly and silica mineralisation. Sci. Rep. 4, 4866.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Anjum, B. and Perros, H. (2015). Bandwidth Allocation for Video Under Quality of Service Constraints. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lee, R., Hu, G. and Miao, H. eds. (2009). Computer and Information Science 2009. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Singh, S. K. (2015). Scenario of Urban Transport in Indian Cities: Challenges and the Way Forward. In Cities and Sustainability: Issues and Strategic Pathways (ed. Dev, S. M.) and Yedla, S.), pp. 81–111. New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Disease Models & Mechanisms.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014). Offshore Wind Farms Guard Landscape Against Hurricanes. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2009). Counterdrug Technology Assessment Center: Clarifying Rationale for the Research and Development Funding Decisions Would Increase Accountability. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Papp, T. M. (2017). CrashAppTM–Concurrent Multiple Stakeholder Evaluation of a DSR Artefact.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. (2001). Time for Recalling the Departed And Reuniting the Long-Lost Related. New York Times 146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Mejia, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Mejia, 2008; Phillips and Dalidovich, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Phillips and Dalidovich, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Liu et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDisease Models & Mechanisms
AbbreviationDis. Model. Mech.
ISSN (print)1754-8403
ISSN (online)1754-8411
ScopeGeneral Biochemistry, Genetics and Molecular Biology
Immunology and Microbiology (miscellaneous)
Medicine (miscellaneous)
Neuroscience (miscellaneous)

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