How to format your references using the Discourse, Context & Media citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Discourse, Context & Media. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kündig, P., 2006. Chemistry. The future of organic synthesis. Science 314, 430–431.
A journal article with 2 authors
Guerrero, I., Ruiz i Altaba, A., 2003. Development. Longing for ligand: hedgehog, patched, and cell death. Science 301, 774–776.
A journal article with 3 authors
Storch, D., Marquet, P.A., Gaston, K.J., 2005. Ecology. Untangling an entangled bank. Science 307, 684–686.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Smith, K.F., Behrens, M., Schloegel, L.M., Marano, N., Burgiel, S., Daszak, P., 2009. Ecology. Reducing the risks of the wildlife trade. Science 324, 594–595.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rezg, N., Hajej, Z., Boschian-Campaner, V., 2016. Production and Maintenance Optimization Problems. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Matysik, F.-M. (Ed.), 2014. Advances in Chemical Bioanalysis, Bioanalytical Reviews. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Annunziata, C.M., Roque, D.M., Azad, N., Kohn, E.C., 2008. Application of Serum and Tissue Proteomics to Understand and Detect Solid Tumors, in: Daoud, S.S. (Ed.), Cancer Proteomics: From Bench to Bedside, Cancer Drug Discovery and Development. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ, pp. 101–120.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Discourse, Context & Media.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Why Is This Giraffe Gnawing On An Impala Skull? [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1993. Army Reserve Officer Education (No. NSIAD-93-197R). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Mark, M., 2017. A peer mentorship program for youth transitioning out of foster care: A grant proposal (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rothenberg, B., 2017. Mixture of Upsets and Injuries Leaves Chase for Men’s Title Wide Open. New York Times SP3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kündig, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Guerrero and Ruiz i Altaba, 2003; Kündig, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Guerrero and Ruiz i Altaba, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Smith et al., 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiscourse, Context & Media
AbbreviationDiscourse Context & Media
ISSN (print)2211-6958

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