How to format your references using the Discourse, Context & Media citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Discourse, Context & Media. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adam, D., 2001. Reef gets off the starting blocks. Nature 410, 1012.
A journal article with 2 authors
Apesteguía, S., Zaher, H., 2006. A Cretaceous terrestrial snake with robust hindlimbs and a sacrum. Nature 440, 1037–1040.
A journal article with 3 authors
Stairs, I.H., Lyne, A.G., Shemar, S.L., 2000. Evidence for free precession in a pulsar. Nature 406, 484–486.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Krause, A.E., Frank, K.A., Mason, D.M., Ulanowicz, R.E., Taylor, W.W., 2003. Compartments revealed in food-web structure. Nature 426, 282–285.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Weber, P., Simon, C., 2016. Benefits of Bayesian Network Models. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Shen, B., 2013. Nonlinear Stochastic Systems with Incomplete Information: Filtering and Control. Springer, London.
A chapter in an edited book
Brunner, D., Voigt, T., 2008. Innovation Processes in Cooperative Organizations: Results of a Case Study Research, in: Hendrikse, G., Tuunanen, M., Windsperger, J., Cliquet, G. (Eds.), Strategy and Governance of Networks: Cooperatives, Franchising, and Strategic Alliances, Contributions to Management Science. Physica-Verlag HD, Heidelberg, pp. 47–62.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Discourse, Context & Media.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2016. The Average Thanksgiving Dinner Is Around 2,500 calories [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. Telecommunications: Enhanced Data Collection and Analysis Could Inform FCC’s Efforts to Complete the Digital Transition of Low-Power Television Stations and Reallocate Spectrum (No. GAO-11-790). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Patil, A.V., 2017. Programming QR code scanner, communicating Android devices, and unit testing in fortified cards (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
St. John Kelly, E., 2004. Bensonhurst Journal; The Time Has Come to Ride and Beep and Laugh Again. New York Times 133.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adam, 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Adam, 2001; Apesteguía and Zaher, 2006).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Apesteguía and Zaher, 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Krause et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiscourse, Context & Media
AbbreviationDiscourse Context & Media
ISSN (print)2211-6958

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