How to format your references using the Discourse, Context & Media citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Discourse, Context & Media. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Wible, B., 2012. Rio+20. Science for sustainable development. Science 336, 1396.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gann, A., Witkowski, J., 2010. The lost correspondence of Francis Crick. Nature 467, 519–524.
A journal article with 3 authors
Malakoff, D., Yeston, J., Smith, J., 2010. Getting better to get bigger. Science 329, 779.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Naebe, M., Wang, J., Amini, A., Khayyam, H., Hameed, N., Li, L.H., Chen, Y., Fox, B., 2014. Mechanical property and structure of covalent functionalised graphene/epoxy nanocomposites. Sci. Rep. 4, 4375.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brandimarte, P., 2014. Handbook in Monte Carlo Simulation. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sampliner, R.E. (Ed.), 2009. Endoscopic Therapy for Barrett’s Esophagus, Clinical Gastroenterology. Humana Press, Totowa, NJ.
A chapter in an edited book
Ferrari, A., Fantechi, A., Gnesi, S., 2012. Lessons Learnt from the Adoption of Formal Model-Based Development, in: Goodloe, A.E., Person, S. (Eds.), NASA Formal Methods: 4th International Symposium, NFM 2012, Norfolk, VA, USA, April 3-5, 2012. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 24–38.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Discourse, Context & Media.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. DNA Testing Now Mandatory in Kuwait [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. FTS2001: Transition Challenges Jeopardize Program Goals (No. GAO-01-289). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Myers, K.E., 2012. The First Determination of the Proton’s Weak Charge Through Parity-Violating Asymmetry Measurements in Elastic e + p and e + Al Scattering (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, M.W., 2012. Creditors of Stockton Fight City Over Pension Funding While in Bankruptcy. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Wible, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Gann and Witkowski, 2010; Wible, 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gann and Witkowski, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Naebe et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiscourse, Context & Media
AbbreviationDiscourse Context & Media
ISSN (print)2211-6958

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