How to format your references using the Discourse, Context & Media citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Discourse, Context & Media. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gutmann, A., 2013. Ethics. The bioethics commission on incidental findings. Science 342, 1321–1323.
A journal article with 2 authors
Spitale, J.N., Porco, C.C., 2007. Association of the jets of Enceladus with the warmest regions on its south-polar fractures. Nature 449, 695–697.
A journal article with 3 authors
Whitmire, E., Khan, B., Coué, M., 2002. Cdc6 synthesis regulates replication competence in Xenopus oocytes. Nature 419, 722–725.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Pagani, M., Caldeira, K., Archer, D., Zachos, J.C., 2006. Atmosphere. An ancient carbon mystery. Science 314, 1556–1557.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kampen, T.U., 2010. Low Molecular Weight Organic Semiconductors. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, Germany.
An edited book
Moor, O. de, Schwartzbach, M.I. (Eds.), 2009. Compiler Construction: 18th International Conference, CC 2009, Held as Part of the Joint European Conferences on Theory and Practice of Software, ETAPS 2009, York, UK, March 22-29, 2009. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Bigelow, T.A., Labyed, Y., 2013. Attenuation Compensation and Estimation, in: Mamou, J., Oelze, M.L. (Eds.), Quantitative Ultrasound in Soft Tissues. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 71–93.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Discourse, Context & Media.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Two-Headed Salamander Born In Israel [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2005. Commercial Aviation: Survey of Small Community Air Service Grantees and Applicants, an E-supplement to GAO-06-21 (No. GAO-06-101SP). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Giles, C.L., 2015. Faculty mentoring of undergraduate students: A qualitative phenomenological study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Phoenix, Phoenix, AZ.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, B., 2017. Film Series. New York Times C23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Cyranoski, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Lynch, 2002; Mirkin, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Spitale and Porco, 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Grevet et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiscourse, Context & Media
AbbreviationDiscourse Context & Media
ISSN (print)2211-6958

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