How to format your references using the Disability & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Disability & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Martin, Thomas E. 2011. “Ecology. The Cost of Fear.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 334 (6061): 1353–1354.
A journal article with 2 authors
Teasley, S., and S. Wolinsky. 2001. “Communication. Scientific Collaborations at a Distance.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 292 (5525): 2254–2255.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ju, Sang-Yong, William P. Kopcha, and Fotios Papadimitrakopoulos. 2009. “Brightly Fluorescent Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes via an Oxygen-Excluding Surfactant Organization.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5919): 1319–1323.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Wendong, Jaakko V. I. Timonen, Andreas Carlson, Dirk-Michael Drotlef, Cathy T. Zhang, Stefan Kolle, Alison Grinthal, et al. 2018. “Multifunctional Ferrofluid-Infused Surfaces with Reconfigurable Multiscale Topography.” Nature 559 (7712): 77–82.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morris, Scott A. 2011. Food and Package Engineering. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Różewski, Przemysław. 2011. Intelligent Open Learning Systems: Concepts, Models and Algorithms. Edited by Emma Kusztina, Ryszard Tadeusiewicz, and Oleg Zaikin. Vol. 22. Intelligent Systems Reference Library. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Sheth, Anandi N., Cecile D. Lahiri, and Ighovwerha Ofotokun. 2015. “Sex Differences in Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics.” In Sex and Gender Differences in Infection and Treatments for Infectious Diseases, edited by Sabra L. Klein and Craig W. Roberts, 75–102. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Disability & Society.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2015. “Core Of Saturn’s Moon Enceladus May Be Similar To Primitive Meteorites.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2003. Aviation Safety: Advancements Being Pursued to Improve Airliner Cabin Occupant Safety and Health. GAO-04-33. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beechey, Susanne N. 2008. “The Politics of Deservingness: Discourses of Gender, Race, *class, and Age in the 2005 Social Security Debates.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Walsh, Mary Williams. 2016. “Puerto Rico Aims to Appease Congress With a New Proposal on Its Debt.” New York Times, April 12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Martin 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Martin 2011; Teasley and Wolinsky 2001).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Teasley and Wolinsky 2001)
  • Three authors: (Ju, Kopcha, and Papadimitrakopoulos 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleDisability & Society
AbbreviationDisabil. Soc.
ISSN (print)0968-7599
ISSN (online)1360-0508
ScopeGeneral Social Sciences
Health(social science)
General Health Professions

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