How to format your references using the Disability & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Disability & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz. 2009. “Planetary Science. Magnetic Twisters on Mercury.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 324 (5927): 597–598.
A journal article with 2 authors
Vogel, Edward K., and Maro G. Machizawa. 2004. “Neural Activity Predicts Individual Differences in Visual Working Memory Capacity.” Nature 428 (6984): 748–751.
A journal article with 3 authors
Velarde, Enriqueta, Exequiel Ezcurra, and Daniel W. Anderson. 2013. “Seabird Diets Provide Early Warning of Sardine Fishery Declines in the Gulf of California.” Scientific Reports 3: 1332.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Liu, Mengyuan, Lushan Wang, Xun Sun, and Xian Zhao. 2014. “Investigating the Impact of Asp181 Point Mutations on Interactions between PTP1B and Phosphotyrosine Substrate.” Scientific Reports 4 (May): 5095.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Connor, Kieron, and Frederick Aardema. 2011. Clinician’s Handbook for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Xu, Honglei, and Xiangyu Wang, eds. 2014. Optimization and Control Methods in Industrial Engineering and Construction. Vol. 72. Intelligent Systems, Control and Automation: Science and Engineering. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Siddique, Rafat, and Mohammad Iqbal Khan. 2011. “Metakaolin.” In Supplementary Cementing Materials, edited by Mohammad Iqbal Khan, 175–230. Engineering Materials. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Disability & Society.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2017. “Earliest Observations Ever Made Of A Supernova Explosion.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2014. Telecommunications: FCC Should Improve the Accountability and Transparency of High-Cost Program Funding. GAO-14-587. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
PerLee-Lange, Dene L. 2010. “An Introduction to the Juvenile Dependency Court Process and the Child Welfare System: A Curriculum for Parents.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Barron, James, and Vivian Wang. 2017. “They Don’t Ride the Subway, Though Its Future Rides on Them.” New York Times, August 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Glassmeier 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Glassmeier 2009; Vogel and Machizawa 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Vogel and Machizawa 2004)
  • Three authors: (Velarde, Ezcurra, and Anderson 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Liu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDisability & Society
AbbreviationDisabil. Soc.
ISSN (print)0968-7599
ISSN (online)1360-0508
ScopeGeneral Social Sciences
Health(social science)
General Health Professions

Other styles