How to format your references using the Disability & Society citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Disability & Society. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Adams, Jonathan. 2013. “Collaborations: The Fourth Age of Research.” Nature 497 (7451): 557–560.
A journal article with 2 authors
Leeman, Dena S., and Anne Brunet. 2014. “Stem Cells: Sex Specificity in the Blood.” Nature 505 (7484): 488–490.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ryckman, Judson D., Yang Jiao, and Sharon M. Weiss. 2013. “Three-Dimensional Patterning and Morphological Control of Porous Nanomaterials by Gray-Scale Direct Imprinting.” Scientific Reports 3: 1502.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wei, Jin-Tao, Wen-He Huang, Cai-Wen Du, Si-Qi Qiu, Xiao-Long Wei, Jing Liu, and Guo-Jun Zhang. 2014. “Clinicopathological Features and Prognostic Factors of Young Breast Cancers in Eastern Guangdong of China.” Scientific Reports 4 (June): 5360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Keedwell, Edward, and Ajit Narayanan. 2005. Intelligent Bioinformatics. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Khangura, Sehijpal Singh, Paramjit Singh, Harwinder Singh, and Gurinder Singh Brar, eds. 2014. Proceedings of the International Conference on Research and Innovations in Mechanical Engineering: ICRIME-2013. Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering. New Delhi: Springer India.
A chapter in an edited book
Yu, Paul L., Brian M. Sadler, Gunjan Verma, and John S. Baras. 2016. “Fingerprinting by Design: Embedding and Authentication.” In Digital Fingerprinting, edited by Cliff Wang, Ryan M. Gerdes, Yong Guan, and Sneha Kumar Kasera, 69–88. New York, NY: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Disability & Society.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. “India Is Set To Spend Over $6 Billion On Restoring Their Forests.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1971. Examination of NASA Contract With Boeing. B-171977. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Luce, Gregory R. 2015. “British Viola Repertoire of the First Half of the Twentieth Century.” Doctoral dissertation, College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
James, Scott. 2017. “There Goes the Gayborhood.” New York Times, June 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Adams 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Adams 2013; Leeman and Brunet 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Leeman and Brunet 2014)
  • Three authors: (Ryckman, Jiao, and Weiss 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wei et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDisability & Society
AbbreviationDisabil. Soc.
ISSN (print)0968-7599
ISSN (online)1360-0508
ScopeGeneral Social Sciences
Health(social science)
General Health Professions

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