How to format your references using the Diagnostic Microbiology & Infectious Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostic Microbiology & Infectious Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Killworth PD. Comment on “Oceanic Rossby waves acting as a ‘hay rake’ for ecosystem floating by-products.” Science. 2004 Apr 16;304(5669):390; author reply 390.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huang Z, Li X. Origin of flaw-tolerance in nacre. Sci Rep. 2013;3:1693.
A journal article with 3 authors
Savrasov SY, Kotliar G, Abrahams E. Correlated electrons in delta-plutonium within a dynamical mean-field picture. Nature. 2001 Apr 12;410(6830):793–5.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ren K, Wu J, Yan F, Ju H. Ratiometric electrochemical proximity assay for sensitive one-step protein detection. Sci Rep. 2014 Mar 12;4:4360.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lyshevski SE. Engineering and Scientific Computations Using MATLAB®. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2005.
An edited book
Hameurlain A, Küng J, Wagner R, editors. Transactions on Large-Scale Data- and Knowledge-Centered Systems IX. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 7980).
A chapter in an edited book
Nelson JP. Hedonic Property Value Studies of Transportation Noise: Aircraft and Road Traffic. In: Baranzini A, Ramirez J, Schaerer C, Thalmann P, editors. Hedonic Methods in Housing Markets: Pricing Environmental Amenities and Segregation. New York, NY: Springer; 2008. p. 57–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostic Microbiology & Infectious Disease.

Blog post
Fang J. How Octopuses Coordinate Their Gangly Arms as they Crawl [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Telecommunications: FCC Should Take Steps to Ensure Equal Access to Rulemaking Information. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007 Sep. Report No.: GAO-07-1046.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roberts JE. Process evaluation of the Instant Word Notebook [Doctoral dissertation]. [ St. Charles, MO]: Lindenwood University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. An Esteemed Seminary’s Earthly Concern: The Endowment Shrinks, but Bills Persist. New York Times. 2002 Mar 17;144.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Killworth 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Killworth 2004; Huang and Li 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huang and Li 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Ren et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostic Microbiology & Infectious Disease
AbbreviationDiagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)0732-8893
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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