How to format your references using the Diagnostic Microbiology & Infectious Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostic Microbiology & Infectious Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ehrlich PR. Retrospective. Stephen Schneider (1945-2010). Science. 2010 Aug 13;329(5993):776.
A journal article with 2 authors
Denchi EL, de Lange T. Protection of telomeres through independent control of ATM and ATR by TRF2 and POT1. Nature. 2007 Aug 30;448(7157):1068–71.
A journal article with 3 authors
McCormick MI, Watson S-A, Munday PL. Ocean acidification reverses competition for space as habitats degrade. Sci Rep. 2013 Nov 21;3:3280.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Fang J, Liu B, Zhao Y, Zhang X. Two-dimensional high efficiency thin-film silicon solar cells with a lateral light trapping architecture. Sci Rep. 2014 Aug 22;4:6169.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Levin R. Implementing the Wealth Management Index. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Baglieri E, Karmarkar U, editors. Managing Consumer Services: Factory or Theater? Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Hoque ME, Yeasin M, Louwerse MM. Robust Recognition of Emotion from Speech. In: Gratch J, Young M, Aylett R, Ballin D, Olivier P, editors. Intelligent Virtual Agents: 6th International Conference, IVA 2006, Marina Del Rey, CA, USA, August 21-23, 2006 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 42–53. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostic Microbiology & Infectious Disease.

Blog post
Andrew E. Robots Teach One Another To Play Pac-Man [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Facility Ranking of Controller Survey Responses. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1989 Nov. Report No.: RCED-90-39.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Davies GL. An analysis of Pat Metheny’s and Lyle Mays’s “Third Wind”: Arranging techniques and performance considerations [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt) SK. World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Army Diet Found Lacking. New York Times. 2003 Nov 14;A6.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ehrlich 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Denchi and de Lange 2007; Ehrlich 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Denchi and de Lange 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Fang et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostic Microbiology & Infectious Disease
AbbreviationDiagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)0732-8893
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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