How to format your references using the Diagnostic Microbiology & Infectious Disease citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diagnostic Microbiology & Infectious Disease. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sanderson K. Vaccination: A durable design. Nature. 2012 Aug 30;488(7413):S7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Merritt D, Ekers RD. Tracing black hole mergers through radio lobe morphology. Science. 2002 Aug 23;297(5585):1310–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sia GM, Clem RL, Huganir RL. The human language-associated gene SRPX2 regulates synapse formation and vocalization in mice. Science. 2013 Nov 22;342(6161):987–91.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Thilker DA, Donovan J, Schiminovich D, Bianchi L, Boissier S, de Paz AG, et al. Massive star formation within the Leo “primordial” ring. Nature. 2009 Feb 19;457(7232):990–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Poikselkä M, Mayer G, Khartabil H, Niemi A. The IMS. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2004.
An edited book
Bault J-P. The Normal and Pathological Fetal Brain: Ultrasonographic Features. 1st ed. 2015. Loeuillet L, editor. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Adl-Tabatabai A-R, Kozyrakis C, Saha B. Optimizing Memory Transactions for Multicore Systems. In: Keckler SW, Olukotun K, Hofstee HP, editors. Multicore Processors and Systems. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 145–72. (Integrated Circuits and Systems).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diagnostic Microbiology & Infectious Disease.

Blog post
Andrew E. Warming Seas Will Set Marine Life On The Move, With Some Good News Among The Bad [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Weather Forecasting: Radar Availability Requirement Not Being Met. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1995 May. Report No.: AIMD-95-132.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nannapaneni D. Factors associated with HPV acceptability among parents [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Falafel, Panini Style. New York Times. 2007 Jul 15;NJ12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Sanderson 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Merritt and Ekers 2002; Sanderson 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Merritt and Ekers 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Thilker et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleDiagnostic Microbiology & Infectious Disease
AbbreviationDiagn. Microbiol. Infect. Dis.
ISSN (print)0732-8893
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Infectious Diseases
Microbiology (medical)

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