How to format your references using the Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Luntz AC. Chemistry. Toward vibrational mode control in catalysis. Science. 2003;302:70–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Bhalerao S, Clandinin TR. Cell biology. Vitamin K2 takes charge. Science. 2012;336:1241–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ye F, Burns MJ, Naughton MJ. Structured metal thin film as an asymmetric color filter: the forward and reverse plasmonic halos. Sci Rep. 2014;4:7267.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Sun H, Jami E, Harpaz S, Mizrahi I. Involvement of dietary salt in shaping bacterial communities in European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Sci Rep. 2013;3:1558.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Khanlari R, Fard MS. FIDIC Plant and Design-Build Form of Contract Illustrated. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Ross DL, Chan TC, editors. Sudden Deaths in Custody. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kheng LK, Minai MS. The Network Characteristic of Chinese SMEs in Malaysia and Their Performance. In: Mohd Sidek NZ, Ali SM, Ismail M, editors. Proceedings of the ASEAN Entrepreneurship Conference 2014. Singapore: Springer; 2016. p. 39–47.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.

Blog post
1. Davis J. Expedition Sets Sail To Assess Feasibility Of Deep-Sea Mining [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Inspectors General: Information on Resources and Selected Accomplishments of Five Inspectors Generals. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1999 Nov. Report No.: AIMD-00-31R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Echols KI. Authentic Leadership, Research Integrity, and Institutions of Higher Learning: Why Focusing on Departmental Leadership is Critical for Preserving the Sanctity of Science [Doctoral dissertation]. [Mississippi State, MS]: Mississippi State University; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Hodgman J. Bonus Advice From Judge John Hodgman. New York Times. 2017 Jan 20;MM22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
AbbreviationDiabetol. Metab. Syndr.
ISSN (online)1758-5996
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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