How to format your references using the Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Muller NZ. Economics. Boosting GDP growth by accounting for the environment. Science. 2014;345:873–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Clarke J, Wilhelm FK. Superconducting quantum bits. Nature. 2008;453:1031–42.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Zheng R-L, Zhang H, Jiang W-L. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha 308G>A polymorphism and risk of rheumatic heart disease: a meta-analysis. Sci Rep. 2014;4:4731.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Meyer JC, Girit CO, Crommie MF, Zettl A. Imaging and dynamics of light atoms and molecules on graphene. Nature. 2008;454:319–22.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Selyanin MA, Boykov PY, Khabarov VN, Polyak F. Hyaluronic Acid. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2015.
An edited book
1. Atzmueller M, Chin A, Helic D, Hotho A, editors. Modeling and Mining Ubiquitous Social Media: International Workshops MSM 2011, Boston, MA, USA, October 9, 2011, and MUSE 2011, Athens, Greece, September 5, 2011, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Clark E, Pompa JL. Women and Traumatic Brain Injury. In: Fletcher-Janzen E, editor. The Neuropsychology of Women. New York, NY: Springer; 2009. p. 1–18.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Ancient Artwork Depicts Collapse of Egypt’s Animal Communities [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Highway Infrastructure: FHWA’s Model for Estimating Highway Needs Has Been Modified for State-Level Planning. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2001 Feb. Report No.: GAO-01-299.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kim CS. Electronic Transport of Thin Crystals in Ruthenium Chloride [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Crow K. Meters Are Running, And Hawking, Too. New York Times. 2002 Apr 14;146.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
AbbreviationDiabetol. Metab. Syndr.
ISSN (online)1758-5996
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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