How to format your references using the Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Lander ES. Genome-sequencing anniversary. The accelerator. Science. 2011;331:1024.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Campillo M, Paul A. Long-range correlations in the diffuse seismic coda. Science. 2003;299:547–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Pfingsten JS, Costantino DA, Kieft JS. Structural basis for ribosome recruitment and manipulation by a viral IRES RNA. Science. 2006;314:1450–4.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Tomasello MV, Perra N, Tessone CJ, Karsai M, Schweitzer F. The role of endogenous and exogenous mechanisms in the formation of R&D networks. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5679.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Borisenko VE, Ossicini S. What is What in the Nanoworld. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2012.
An edited book
1. Bogdan B. Valuation in Life Sciences: A Practical Guide. Villiger R, editor. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Scholz V, Heiermann M, Kaulfuss P. Sustainability of Energy Crop Cultivation in Central Europe. In: Lichtfouse E, editor. Sociology, Organic Farming, Climate Change and Soil Science. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010. p. 109–45.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetology & Metabolic Syndrome.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Males Of Sexually Cannibalistic Species Are Picky. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2011.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Airline Scheduling: Airline Practices in Establishing and Maintaining Connecting Times. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1988 Sep. Report No.: RCED-88-207.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Kalafut AJ. Proactive cyberfraud detection through infrastructure analysis [Doctoral dissertation]. [Bloomington, IN]: Indiana University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Kelly TW. Encounter: When Fantasy Becomes Fact. New York Times. 1975 May 4;Travel and Resorts373.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetology & Metabolic Syndrome
AbbreviationDiabetol. Metab. Syndr.
ISSN (online)1758-5996
ScopeEndocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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