How to format your references using the Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rowe D. Sustainability. Education for a sustainable future. Science 2007; 317: 323–324.
A journal article with 2 authors
Reyes N, Gadsby DC. Ion permeation through the Na+,K+-ATPase. Nature 2006; 443: 470–474.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cerda E, Ravi-Chandar K, Mahadevan L. Thin films. Wrinkling of an elastic sheet under tension. Nature 2002; 419: 579–580.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Lazaris A, Arcidiacono S, Huang Y, et al. Spider silk fibers spun from soluble recombinant silk produced in mammalian cells. Science 2002; 295: 472–476.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Diamond N. Between Skins. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, 2013.
An edited book
Priami C (ed). Computational Methods in Systems Biology: International Conference, CMSB 2006, Trento, Italy, October 18-19, 2006. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Mattox A, Li J, Di C, et al. Medulloblastoma: Role of OTX2 Transcription Factors. In: Hayat MA (ed) Tumors of the Central Nervous System, Volume 8: Astrocytoma, Medulloblastoma, Retinoblastoma, Chordoma, Craniopharyngioma, Oligodendroglioma, and Ependymoma. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands, 2012, pp. 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research.

Blog post
Davis J. New Zealand River Is Given Same Legal Rights As Humans. IFLScience, (2017, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Financial Audit: The Federal Communications Commission’s Fiscal Year 2004 Management Representation Letter on Its Financial Statements. GAO-05-608R, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 22 July 2005.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Myers KE. The First Determination of the Proton’s Weak Charge Through Parity-Violating Asymmetry Measurements in Elastic e + p and e + Al Scattering. Doctoral Dissertation, George Washington University, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
McAULEY J. The Artists and Their Alley. New York Times, 22 September 2016, p. M2178.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes & Vascular Disease Research
AbbreviationDiab. Vasc. Dis. Res.
ISSN (print)1479-1641
ISSN (online)1752-8984
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

Other styles