How to format your references using the Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smith H. Phytochromes and light signal perception by plants--an emerging synthesis. Nature 2000; 407: 585–591.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lill T, Joubert O. Materials science. The cutting edge of plasma etching. Science 2008; 319: 1050–1051.
A journal article with 3 authors
Matsunami H, Montmayeur JP, Buck LB. A family of candidate taste receptors in human and mouse. Nature 2000; 404: 601–604.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Peters C, Bayer MJ, Bühler S, et al. Trans-complex formation by proteolipid channels in the terminal phase of membrane fusion. Nature 2001; 409: 581–588.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Law H. The Psychology of Coaching, Mentoring and Learning. Oxford: John Wiley & Sons, 2013.
An edited book
Prohens J, Nuez F (eds). Vegetables II: Fabaceae, Liliaceae, Solanaceae, and Umbelliferae. New York, NY: Springer, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
Koranyi A. Holomorphic and Harmonic Functions on Bounded Symmetric Domains. In: Vesentini E (ed) Geometry of Homogeneous Bounded Domains. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011, pp. 125–197.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. In Defence Of Magpies: The Bird World’s Bad Boy Is Simply Misunderstood. IFLScience, (2015, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. DOD Business Transformation: Improved Management Oversight of Business System Modernization Efforts Needed. GAO-11-53, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 7 October 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Blazer AE. ‘I Am Otherwise’: The Romance Between Poetry and Theory After the Death of the Subject. Doctoral Dissertation, Ohio State University, 2003.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Grynbaum MM. 3 CNN Journalists Quit After Story Is Pulled. New York Times, 27 June 2017, p. B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes & Vascular Disease Research
AbbreviationDiab. Vasc. Dis. Res.
ISSN (print)1479-1641
ISSN (online)1752-8984
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

Other styles