How to format your references using the Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sardar Z. Beyond the troubled relationship. Nature 2007; 448: 131–133.
A journal article with 2 authors
Bell AM, Robinson GE. Genomics. Behavior and the dynamic genome. Science 2011; 332: 1161–1162.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jayne BC, Voris HK, Ng PKL. Snake circumvents constraints on prey size. Nature 2002; 418: 143.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Kuwabata S, Minamimoto H, Inoue K, et al. Three-dimensional micro/nano-scale structure fabricated by combination of non-volatile polymerizable RTIL and FIB irradiation. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 3722.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Jiang J, Zhang C. Fundamentals and Applications of Lithium-ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles. Singapore: John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, 2015.
An edited book
Marshak A, Davis A (eds). 3D Radiative Transfer in Cloudy Atmospheres. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005.
A chapter in an edited book
Fan P, Haran JG, Dillenburg J, et al. Cluster-Based Framework in Vehicular Ad-Hoc Networks. In: Syrotiuk VR, Chávez E (eds) Ad-Hoc, Mobile, and Wireless Networks: 4th International Conference, ADHOC-NOW 2005, Cancun, Mexico, October 6-8, 2005. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005, pp. 32–42.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes & Vascular Disease Research.

Blog post
Andrew E. True color of ancient sea creatures revealed by fossilized pigment. IFLScience, (2014, accessed 30 October 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Estimates of Potential Savings by Retiring Two Aircraft Carriers Early. T-NSIAD-88-16, Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office, 23 March 1988.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Do NH. An examination of support systems to enable Vietnamese immigrants to acquire English skills. Doctoral Dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G. Bustling Booth Becomes Waypoint In Ashe’s Legacy. New York Times, 5 September 2010, p. SP7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes & Vascular Disease Research
AbbreviationDiab. Vasc. Dis. Res.
ISSN (print)1479-1641
ISSN (online)1752-8984
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

Other styles