How to format your references using the Diabetes & Metabolism: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes & Metabolism: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kaiser J. ECOSYSTEM ASSESSMENT: Ecologists Hope to Avoid the Mistakes of Previous Assessment. Science 2000;289:1677.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mesterton-Gibbons M, Adams ES. Behavioral ecology. The economics of animal cooperation. Science 2002;298:2146–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xu X, Zheng X, You H. Exceptional dinosaur fossils show ontogenetic development of early feathers. Nature 2010;464:1338–41.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Bzhalava D, Mühr LSA, Lagheden C, Ekström J, Forslund O, Dillner J, et al. Deep sequencing extends the diversity of human papillomaviruses in human skin. Sci Rep 2014;4:5807.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McMaster MC. HPLC. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Tsukahara T, Pasqualin A, Esposito G, Regli L, Pinna G, editors. Trends in Cerebrovascular Surgery. vol. 123. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Potts KB. Nutritional Ecology and Reproductive Output in Female Chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes): Variation Among and Within Populations. In: Clancy KBH, Hinde K, Rutherford JN, editors. Building Babies: Primate Development in Proximate and Ultimate Perspective, New York, NY: Springer; 2013, p. 83–100.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes & Metabolism: X.

Blog post
Luntz S. Cosmic Winds Shape Dust Clouds At Galactic Edge. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Department of Health, Education, and Welfare’s Professional Standards Review Organization Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Perry EM. Live and let live: Negotiating difference in a diverse urban neighborhood. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K. The Patriarch and the Fighting Sons. New York Times 2000:D1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes & Metabolism: X
ISSN (print)2590-1540

Other styles