How to format your references using the Diabetes & Metabolism: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes & Metabolism: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Niemeyer CM. Nanotechnology. Tools for the biomolecular engineer. Science 2002;297:62–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lewcock JW, Reed RR. Neuroscience. ORs rule the roost in the olfactory system. Science 2003;302:2078–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wardle DA, Walker LR, Bardgett RD. Ecosystem properties and forest decline in contrasting long-term chronosequences. Science 2004;305:509–13.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Dymond JS, Richardson SM, Coombes CE, Babatz T, Muller H, Annaluru N, et al. Synthetic chromosome arms function in yeast and generate phenotypic diversity by design. Nature 2011;477:471–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rosenbaum J, Pearl J. Investment Banking. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Łyda A, Warchał K, editors. Occupying Niches: Interculturality, Cross-culturality and Aculturality in Academic Research. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Das P, Dutta G, Mandal NK, Sinha BK. OCDs in Group Divisible Design Set-Up. In: Dutta G, Mandal NK, Sinha BK, editors. Optimal Covariate Designs: Theory and Applications, New Delhi: Springer India; 2015, p. 65–88.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes & Metabolism: X.

Blog post
Andrew D. From Medical Treatment To Diet And Lifestyle Choice: How To Spot Unreliable Health Research. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Expenditures of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration for Public Relations Activities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stewart AR. Entrepreneurial perception: A survey of graduates of a global management MBA program. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Paulson M. Tomorrow’s Marquee Names. New York Times 2017:AR26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes & Metabolism: X
ISSN (print)2590-1540

Other styles