How to format your references using the Diabetes & Metabolism: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes & Metabolism: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Allen PB. Condensed-matter physics. Misbehaviour in metals. Nature 2000;405:1007–8.
A journal article with 2 authors
Roediger HL 3rd, DeSoto KA. Cognitive psychology. Forgetting the presidents. Science 2014;346:1106–9.
A journal article with 3 authors
Doi T, Behera SK, Yamagata T. Predictability of the Ningaloo Niño/Niña. Sci Rep 2013;3:2892.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Ebisawa K, Maeda Y, Kaneda H, Yamauchi S. Origin of the hard x-ray emission from the Galactic plane. Science 2001;293:1633–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Stockinger P. Audiovisual Archives. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
Huang F, Finkelstein M, Rostan M, editors. The Internationalization of the Academy: Changes, Realities and Prospects. vol. 10. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Amerio L. Almost-Periodic Equations in Hilbert Spaces. In: Amerio L, editor. Equazioni differenziali astratte, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 223–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes & Metabolism: X.

Blog post
Andrew E. Male Harassment of Sexy Female Flies Can Damage the Gene Pool. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Credit Cards: Marketing to College Students Appears to Have Declined. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Kinney EL. Isolation, identification, and antimicrobial susceptibility analysis of Enterococccus spp. and Salmonella spp. from conventional poultry farms transitioning to organic farming practices. Doctoral dissertation. University of Maryland, College Park, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis J. Relying on Strict Regimen to Keep Addiction at Bay. New York Times 2016:A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes & Metabolism: X
ISSN (print)2590-1540

Other styles