How to format your references using the Diabetes & Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes & Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Reichhardt T. Discovery of giant asteroid gives Pluto a rocky outlook. Nature 2002;419:546.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang X, Key JR. Recent trends in Arctic surface, cloud, and radiation properties from space. Science 2003;299:1725–8.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kitching RP, Taylor NM, Thrusfield MV. Veterinary epidemiology: vaccination strategies for foot-and-mouth disease. Nature 2007;445:E12; discussion E12-3.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chin JK, Miller DE, Liu Y, Stan C, Setiawan W, Sanner C, et al. Evidence for superfluidity of ultracold fermions in an optical lattice. Nature 2006;443:961–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Rimai DS. Patent Engineering. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2016.
An edited book
Giese H, Rosu G, editors. Formal Techniques for Distributed Systems: Joint 14th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, FMOODS 2012 and 32nd IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, FORTE 2012, Stockholm, Sweden, June 13-16, 2012. Proceedings. vol. 7273. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Holovaty A, Kaplan-Moss J. Interacting with a Database: Models. In: Kaplan-Moss J, editor. The Definitive Guide to Django: Web Development Done Right, Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2008, p. 59–82.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes & Metabolism.

Blog post
Andrew E. US Space Exploration Left In The Cold By Lack Of Vision And Money. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Federal Research: Small Business Innovation Research Program Shows Success But Could Be Strengthened. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1991.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Orozco M. Music preference and its effects on emotion processes and identity development in young adult females: An examination of the “emo” subculture. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard M. Ride Home With It. New York Times 2010:E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes & Metabolism
AbbreviationDiabetes Metab.
ISSN (print)1262-3636
General Medicine
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

Other styles