How to format your references using the Diabetes & Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes & Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rogers R. A chemist believes that an ionic liquid is the place for a noxious gas. Nature 2008;454:555.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hsieh HH, Jewitt D. A population of comets in the main asteroid belt. Science 2006;312:561–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pryke SR, Rollins LA, Griffith SC. Females use multiple mating and genetically loaded sperm competition to target compatible genes. Science 2010;329:964–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nielsen KH, Kittel T, Wondraczek K, Wondraczek L. Optical breathing of nano-porous antireflective coatings through adsorption and desorption of water. Sci Rep 2014;4:6595.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Neave EH. Modern Financial Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2009.
An edited book
Lamb GC, DiLorenzo N, editors. Current and Future Reproductive Technologies and World Food Production. vol. 752. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Mack KA, Guerrero APS. Sexuality Throughout the Life Cycle. In: Guerrero A, Piasecki M, editors. Problem-Based Behavioral Science and Psychiatry, New York, NY: Springer; 2008, p. 67–76.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes & Metabolism.

Blog post
Andrews R. NASA To Investigate Microgravity Effect On Astronauts’ Balance. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Effective Central Control Could Improve DOD’s Ammunition Logistics. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1973.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Henderson R. The effect of Interactive Metronome training on sports confidence and putting performance. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ayittey GBN. After Revolutions, Beware of Crocodiles. New York Times 2012:A23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes & Metabolism
AbbreviationDiabetes Metab.
ISSN (print)1262-3636
General Medicine
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

Other styles