How to format your references using the Diabetes & Metabolism citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes & Metabolism. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Paul GS. Comment on “Narrow primary feather rachises in Confuciusornis and Archaeopteryx suggest poor flight ability.” Science 2010;330:320; author reply 320.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Zegerman P, Diffley JFX. Phosphorylation of Sld2 and Sld3 by cyclin-dependent kinases promotes DNA replication in budding yeast. Nature 2007;445:281–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Richardson JE, Melosh HJ, Greenberg R. Impact-induced seismic activity on asteroid 433 Eros: a surface modification process. Science 2004;306:1526–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Wang X-D, Wu Y-Y, A-Ping Liu, Wang P. Spatio-temporal dynamics of automatic processing of phonological information in visual words. Sci Rep 2013;3:3485.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Tissue BM. Basics of Analytical Chemistry and Chemical Equilibria. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2013.
An edited book
[1]
Sharaf MA, Cheema MA, Qi J, editors. Databases Theory and Applications: 26th Australasian Database Conference, ADC 2015, Melbourne, VIC, Australia, June 4-7, 2015. Proceedings. vol. 9093. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Herkenhoff L, Fogli J. Survey Design. In: Fogli J, editor. Applied Statistics for Business and Management using Microsoft Excel, New York, NY: Springer; 2013, p. 117–41.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes & Metabolism.

Blog post
[1]
O`Callaghan J. It’s One Year Until A Total Solar Eclipse Sweeps Across America. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/space/its-one-year-until-a-total-solar-eclipse-sweeps-across-america/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Geostationary Weather Satellites: Progress Made, but Weaknesses in Scheduling, Contingency Planning, and Communicating with Users Need to Be Addressed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Carpenter KJ. The Relationship between School Leadership Practices And School Climate. Doctoral dissertation. Southern Illinois University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Wogan J. Eat, Pray, Chill. New York Times 2016:M2124.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes & Metabolism
AbbreviationDiabetes Metab.
ISSN (print)1262-3636
ScopeEndocrinology
General Medicine
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

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