How to format your references using the Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Leonard DC. Astronomy. A supernova riddle. Science 2007;315:193–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Anderson RT, Lovley DR. Hexadecane decay by methanogenesis. Nature 2000;404:722–3.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cheng N, Tsunenari T, Yau K-W. Intrinsic light response of retinal horizontal cells of teleosts. Nature 2009;460:899–903.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Smirnakis SM, Brewer AA, Schmid MC, Tolias AS, Schüz A, Augath M, et al. Lack of long-term cortical reorganization after macaque retinal lesions. Nature 2005;435:300–7.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zhu Z, Nandi AK. Automatic Modulation Classification. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
Reniers G. Using Game Theory to Improve Safety within Chemical Industrial Parks. London: Springer; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Divvala SK, Efros AA, Hebert M. How Important Are “Deformable Parts” in the Deformable Parts Model? In: Fusiello A, Murino V, Cucchiara R, editors. Computer Vision – ECCV 2012. Workshops and Demonstrations: Florence, Italy, October 7-13, 2012, Proceedings, Part III, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 31–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews.

Blog post
Fang J. Scientists Create Light-Sensitive Retina in a Dish. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Computer Security: FAA Is Addressing Personnel Weaknesses, But Further Action Is Required. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2000.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lauterbach JR. Golf in the Collective: Playing in Liminal Space. Doctoral dissertation. Pacifica Graduate Institute, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. Early Emmy Leads For ‘S.N.L.’ and HBO. New York Times 2017:C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleDiabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: Clinical Research & Reviews
AbbreviationDiabetes Metab. Syndr.
ISSN (print)1871-4021
ScopeGeneral Medicine
Endocrinology, Diabetes and Metabolism
Internal Medicine

Other styles