How to format your references using the Deutsches Ärzteblatt citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Deutsches Ärzteblatt. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sharkey N. Computer science. The ethical frontiers of robotics. Science. 2008 Dec 19;322(5909):1800–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weaver AJ, Zwiers FW. Uncertainty in climate change. Nature. 2000 Oct 5;407(6804):571–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Haig J, Nott J, Reichart G-J. Australian tropical cyclone activity lower than at any time over the past 550-1,500 years. Nature. 2014 Jan 30;505(7485):667–71.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kim H-M, Cho YS, Kim H, Jho S, Son B, Choi JY, et al. Whole genome comparison of donor and cloned dogs. Sci Rep. 2013 Oct 21;3:2998.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Morley D. Communications and Mobility. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2017.
An edited book
Audebaud P, Paulin-Mohring C, editors. Mathematics of Program Construction: 9th International Conference, MPC 2008, Marseille, France, July 15-18, 2008. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2008. X, 423 p. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science; vol. 5133).
A chapter in an edited book
Liu Z. Asthma. In: Liu Z, editor. Essentials of Chinese Medicine: Essentials of Clinical Specialties in Chinese Medicine. London: Springer; 2009. p. 33–43.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Deutsches Ärzteblatt.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Watch Water Droplets Explode As They Freeze From The Outside In [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2017 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Rail Safety: Improved Human Capital Planning Could Address Emerging Safety Oversight Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013 Dec. Report No.: GAO-14-85.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Conti AI. Dirty hands, virtue ethics, and consequentialism [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper M. A Cutting-Edge Impresario’s Legacy. New York Times. 2017 May 4;C4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDeutsches Ärzteblatt
ISSN (print)0012-1207

Other styles