How to format your references using the Deutsches Ärzteblatt citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Deutsches Ärzteblatt. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vanclay JK. The effectiveness of parks. Science. 2001 Aug 10;293(5532):1007.
A journal article with 2 authors
Messing GL, Stevenson AJ. Materials science. Toward pore-free ceramics. Science. 2008 Oct 17;322(5900):383–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Ochman H, Lawrence JG, Groisman EA. Lateral gene transfer and the nature of bacterial innovation. Nature. 2000 May 18;405(6784):299–304.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Liberman MC, Gao J, He DZZ, Wu X, Jia S, Zuo J. Prestin is required for electromotility of the outer hair cell and for the cochlear amplifier. Nature. 2002 Sep 19;419(6904):300–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Murphy DB, Davidson MW. Fundamentals of Light Microscopy and Electronic Imaging. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Pérez Martín J, Di Pietro A, editors. Morphogenesis and Pathogenicity in Fungi. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. XIV, 286 p. (Topics in Current Genetics; vol. 22).
A chapter in an edited book
Chou C-J, Conley C. Engaging Experience: A New Perspective of User Experience with Physical Products. In: Kurosu M, editor. Human Centered Design: First International Conference, HCD 2009, Held as Part of HCI International 2009, San Diego, CA, USA, July 19-24, 2009 Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009. p. 31–40. (Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Deutsches Ärzteblatt.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. Playing Tetris Could Reduce Cravings For Drugs, Food and Sex [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: FBI Has Largely Staffed Key Modernization Program, but Strategic Approach to Managing Program’s Human Capital Is Needed. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006 Oct. Report No.: GAO-07-19.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Shirley A. Connecting foster children with their siblings within a summer camp setting: A grant proposal [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Castle S, Erlanger S. British Premier Outlines Path to a Clean Break With the E.U. New York Times. 2017 Jan 17;A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDeutsches Ärzteblatt
ISSN (print)0012-1207

Other styles