How to format your references using the Deutsches Ärzteblatt citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Deutsches Ärzteblatt. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Waldrop MM. Physics meets cancer: The disruptor. Nature. 2011 Jun 2;474(7349):20–2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Liechti R, Farmer EE. The jasmonate pathway. Science. 2002 May 31;296(5573):1649–50.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hermanson O, Jepsen K, Rosenfeld MG. N-CoR controls differentiation of neural stem cells into astrocytes. Nature. 2002 Oct 31;419(6910):934–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Menneken M, Nemchin AA, Geisler T, Pidgeon RT, Wilde SA. Hadean diamonds in zircon from Jack Hills, Western Australia. Nature. 2007 Aug 23;448(7156):917–20.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fernandez-Maloigne C, Robert-Inacio F, Macaire L. Digital Color. Hoboken, NJ USA: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2012.
An edited book
Simovska V, Mannix McNamara P, editors. Schools for Health and Sustainability: Theory, Research and Practice. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2015. XXVIII, 431 p. 18 illus., 7 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Strumia M, Ramantani G, Mader I, Henning J, Bai L, Hadjidemetriou S. Analysis of Structural MRI Data for the Localisation of Focal Cortical Dysplasia in Epilepsy. In: Drechsler K, Erdt M, Linguraru MG, Oyarzun Laura C, Sharma K, Shekhar R, et al., editors. Clinical Image-Based Procedures From Planning to Intervention: International Workshop, CLIP 2012, Held in Conjunction with MICCAI 2012, Nice, France, October 5, 2012, Revised Selected Papers. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013. p. 25–32. (Hutchison D, Kanade T, Kittler J, Kleinberg JM, Mattern F, Mitchell JC, et al., editors. Lecture Notes in Computer Science).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Deutsches Ärzteblatt.

Blog post
Luntz S. Dozens Of Scientific Papers Withdrawn After Peer-Review Fraud Uncovered [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Diploma Mills: Diploma Mills Are Easily Created and Some Have Issued Bogus Degrees to Federal Employees at Government Expense. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2004 Sep. Report No.: GAO-04-1096T.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Guzman F. Terra Forming with You and Me [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2013.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wells L. My Life in Pictures. New York Times. 2005 Oct 16;656.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleDeutsches Ärzteblatt
ISSN (print)0012-1207

Other styles