How to format your references using the Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Phillips, Rob. 2013. “In Retrospect: The Feynman Lectures on Physics.” Nature 504 (7478): 30–31.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dubrovinskaia, Natalia, and Leonid Dubrovinsky. 2013. “Controversy about Ultrahard Nanotwinned CBN.” Nature 502 (7472): E1-2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Meng, Jin, Yuanqing Wang, and Chuankui Li. 2011. “Transitional Mammalian Middle Ear from a New Cretaceous Jehol Eutriconodont.” Nature 472 (7342): 181–185.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Baby, Sabulal, Anil John Johnson, Balaji Govindan, Sujith Lukose, Bhaskaran Gopakumar, and Konnath Chacko Koshy. 2013. “UV Induced Visual Cues in Grasses.” Scientific Reports 3: 2738.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kupka, Hans J. 2010. Transitions in Molecular Systems. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Zajda, Joseph, ed. 2015. Nation-Building and History Education in a Global Culture. Vol. 13. Globalisation, Comparative Education and Policy Research. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Singh, Sanjay Kumar. 2015. “Scenario of Urban Transport in Indian Cities: Challenges and the Way Forward.” In Cities and Sustainability: Issues and Strategic Pathways, edited by S. Mahendra Dev and Sudhakar Yedla, 81–111. Springer Proceedings in Business and Economics. New Delhi: Springer India.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2016. “Catching Metastatic Cancer Cells Before They Grow Into Tumors: A New Implant Shows Promise.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1971. Relationship of Contractor and Grantee ADP Activities. 092981. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ebrahimi, Anni. 2015. “A Recreational and Vocational Program for Foster Youth Who Reside in Group Homes: A Grant Proposal.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kenigsberg, Ben. 2017. “A Ranchera Star Who Rejected Convention.” New York Times, October 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Phillips 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Phillips 2013; Dubrovinskaia and Dubrovinsky 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Dubrovinskaia and Dubrovinsky 2013)
  • Three authors: (Meng, Wang, and Li 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Baby et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDebatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe
ISSN (print)0965-156X
ISSN (online)1469-3712
Cultural Studies

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