How to format your references using the Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hanage, William P. 2014. “Microbiology: Microbiome Science Needs a Healthy Dose of Scepticism.” Nature 512 (7514): 247–248.
A journal article with 2 authors
Guttman, Mitchell, and John L. Rinn. 2012. “Modular Regulatory Principles of Large Non-Coding RNAs.” Nature 482 (7385): 339–346.
A journal article with 3 authors
Semmann, Dirk, Hans-Jürgen Krambeck, and Manfred Milinski. 2003. “Volunteering Leads to Rock-Paper-Scissors Dynamics in a Public Goods Game.” Nature 425 (6956): 390–393.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Wang, Zhe, Jianda Wu, Wang Yang, Anup Kumar Bera, Dmytro Kamenskyi, A. T. M. Nazmul Islam, Shenglong Xu, et al. 2018. “Experimental Observation of Bethe Strings.” Nature 554 (7691): 219–223.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Avlonas, Nikos, and George P. Nassos. 2013. Practical Sustainability Strategies. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Gerlach, Gerald, and Karl-Friedrich Arndt, eds. 2010. Hydrogel Sensors and Actuators: Engineering and Technology. Vol. 6. Springer Series on Chemical Sensors and Biosensors, Methods and Applications. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pavanello, Laura, Stefano Cesari, Carlo Biasiutti, Riccardo Manfredi, and Roberto Pozzi Mucelli. 2015. “Fibroids.” In MRI of the Female and Male Pelvis, edited by Riccardo Manfredi and Roberto Pozzi Mucelli, 97–127. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “It’s Survival of the Most Useful When Protecting Species.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1993. Space Science: Causes and Impacts of Cutbacks to NASA’s Outer Solar System Exploration Missions. NSIAD-94-24. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Widner, Carol M. 2010. “Top -Dog to Bottom -Dog: A Study of Middle to High School Transition and Teachers’ Philosophies and Practices as Applied to Stage -Environment Fit Theory.” Doctoral dissertation, Minneapolis, MN: Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Williams, John. 2017. “A Nazi Script Comes to Light.” New York Times, October 29.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hanage 2014).
This sentence cites two references (Hanage 2014; Guttman and Rinn 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Guttman and Rinn 2012)
  • Three authors: (Semmann, Krambeck, and Milinski 2003)
  • 4 or more authors: (Wang et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleDebatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe
ISSN (print)0965-156X
ISSN (online)1469-3712
Cultural Studies

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