How to format your references using the Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seeman, Nadrian C. 2003. “DNA in a Material World.” Nature 421 (6921): 427–431.
A journal article with 2 authors
Weiss, Benjamin P., and Sonia M. Tikoo. 2014. “The Lunar Dynamo.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 346 (6214): 1246753.
A journal article with 3 authors
Randau, Lennart, Imke Schröder, and Dieter Söll. 2008. “Life without RNase P.” Nature 453 (7191): 120–123.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Zhou, Jiawei, Wuli Jia, Chang-Bing Huang, and Robert F. Hess. 2013. “The Effect of Unilateral Mean Luminance on Binocular Combination in Normal and Amblyopic Vision.” Scientific Reports 3: 2012.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bai, Qiang, Yong Bai, and Weidong Ruan. 2017. Advances in Pipes and Pipelines. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Laws, Edward A., ed. 2013. Environmental Toxicology: Selected Entries from the Encyclopedia of Sustainability Science and Technology. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Resch, Klaus. 2005. “Cytokines.” In Principles of Immunopharmacology, edited by Frans P. Nijkamp and Michael J. Parnham, 45–61. Basel: Birkhäuser.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe.

Blog post
Hamilton, Kristy. 2016. “Memory And Attention Are Affected By Much Lower Levels Of Dehydration Than Previously Thought.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1976. Selected Literature on Cost Accounting and Cost Control for Automatic Data Processing. 092323. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Abraham, Efelomo D. 2015. “A Mental Health Community Outreach and Education Program for Nigerian Immigrants: A Grant Writing Project.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Otis, John. 2017. “For the First Time, She Hears the Birds Chirp And the Wind Whistle.” New York Times, October 21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Seeman 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Seeman 2003; Weiss and Tikoo 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Weiss and Tikoo 2014)
  • Three authors: (Randau, Schröder, and Söll 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Zhou et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDebatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe
ISSN (print)0965-156X
ISSN (online)1469-3712
Cultural Studies

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