How to format your references using the Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gotta, Monica. 2010. “Journal Club. A Cell Biologist Connects Her Research to Bacterial Brain Invasion.” Nature 463 (7278): 139.
A journal article with 2 authors
Appavoo, Kannatassen, and Richard F. Haglund Jr. 2014. “Polarization Selective Phase-Change Nanomodulator.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6771.
A journal article with 3 authors
Nava, Elena, Tineke Steiger, and Brigitte Röder. 2014. “Both Developmental and Adult Vision Shape Body Representations.” Scientific Reports 4 (October): 6622.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kim, Ji Young, Min-Wook Oh, Seunghun Lee, Yong Chan Cho, Jang-Hee Yoon, Geun Woo Lee, Chae-Ryong Cho, Chul Hong Park, and Se-Young Jeong. 2014. “Abnormal Drop in Electrical Resistivity with Impurity Doping of Single-Crystal Ag.” Scientific Reports 4 (June): 5450.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Benatar, David. 2012. The Second Sexism. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Berkhout, Ben, Hildegund C. J. Ertl, and Marc S. Weinberg, eds. 2015. Gene Therapy for HIV and Chronic Infections. Vol. 848. Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology. New York, NY: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Hu, Ruimin, Shi Dong, Heng Wang, Maosheng Zhang, Song Wang, and Dengshi Li. 2013. “Perceptual Characteristic and Compression Research in 3D Audio Technology.” In From Sounds to Music and Emotions: 9th International Symposium, CMMR 2012, London, UK, June 19-22, 2012, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Mitsuko Aramaki, Mathieu Barthet, Richard Kronland-Martinet, and Sølvi Ystad, 82–98. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe.

Blog post
Davis, Josh. 2016. “SpaceX To Deliver Radiation-Eating Fungi From Chernobyl To The ISS.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1996. Aviation Safety: FAA Generally Agrees With but Is Slow in Implementing Safety Recommendations. RCED-96-193. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Trichon, Mitchell C. 2010. “Self-Help Conferences for People Who Stutter: An Interpretive Phenomenological Analysis.” Doctoral dissertation, Lafayette, LA: University of Louisiana.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kinsley, Michael. 2017. “Nagging NATO.” New York Times, June 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gotta 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Gotta 2010; Appavoo and Haglund 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Appavoo and Haglund 2014)
  • Three authors: (Nava, Steiger, and Röder 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Kim et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDebatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe
ISSN (print)0965-156X
ISSN (online)1469-3712
Cultural Studies

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