How to format your references using the Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fuyuno, Ichiko. 2007. “Plastic Promises.” Nature 446 (7137): 715.
A journal article with 2 authors
Quinn, P. K., and T. S. Bates. 2011. “The Case against Climate Regulation via Oceanic Phytoplankton Sulphur Emissions.” Nature 480 (7375): 51–56.
A journal article with 3 authors
Farihi, J., B. T. Gänsicke, and D. Koester. 2013. “Evidence for Water in the Rocky Debris of a Disrupted Extrasolar Minor Planet.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 342 (6155): 218–220.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Brune, W., C. Ménard, J. Heesemann, and U. H. Koszinowski. 2001. “A Ribonucleotide Reductase Homolog of Cytomegalovirus and Endothelial Cell Tropism.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 291 (5502): 303–305.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bartoszyǹski, Robert, and Magdalena Niewiadomska-Bugaj. 2007. Probability and Statistical Inference, Second Edition. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
J. (Jong Hyuk) Park, James, Victor C. M. Leung, Cho-Li Wang, and Taeshik Shon, eds. 2012. Future Information Technology, Application, and Service: FutureTech 2012 Volume 1. Vol. 164. Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Sebestik, Jan. 2011. “Otto Neurath’s Epistemology and Its Paradoxes.” In Otto Neurath and the Unity of Science, edited by John Symons, Olga Pombo, and Juan Manuel Torres, 41–57. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Debatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2017. “Stunning New ‘Farewell To Pluto’ Image Reminds Us How Awesome This World Is.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1982. Information on the Funded Legal Education Program. FPCD-82-76. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stewart, Dalys A. 2013. “Principals’ Post-Observation Feedback and Its Influence on Teacher Professional Growth at Two Southern California Catholic High Schools.” Doctoral dissertation, Malibu, CA: Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Saslow, Linda. 2007. “Superintendent Takes On Ailing Roosevelt.” New York Times, October 28.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fuyuno 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Fuyuno 2007; Quinn and Bates 2011).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Quinn and Bates 2011)
  • Three authors: (Farihi, Gänsicke, and Koester 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Brune et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleDebatte: Journal of Contemporary Central and Eastern Europe
ISSN (print)0965-156X
ISSN (online)1469-3712
Cultural Studies

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