How to format your references using the Data & Knowledge Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Data & Knowledge Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D.M. Crothers, Biophysics. Fine tuning gene regulation, Science. 339 (2013) 766–767.
A journal article with 2 authors
G.-W. Li, X.S. Xie, Central dogma at the single-molecule level in living cells, Nature. 475 (2011) 308–315.
A journal article with 3 authors
E.A. Oliveira, J.S. Andrade Jr, H.A. Makse, Large cities are less green, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4235.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.E. Smalley, E. Nygaard, K. Squire, J. Van Wagoner, J. Rasmussen, S. Gneiting, K. Qaderi, J. Goodsell, W. Rogers, M. Lindsey, K. Costner, A. Monk, M. Pearson, B. Haymore, J. Peatross, A photophoretic-trap volumetric display, Nature. 553 (2018) 486–490.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
P.W. Epperlein, Semiconductor Laser Engineering, Reliability and Diagnostics, John Wiley & Sons Ltd, Oxford, UK, 2013.
An edited book
J. de Graaf, ApoB in Clinical Care, Bohn Stafleu van Loghum, Houten, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
K. Resch, Cytokines, in: F.P. Nijkamp, M.J. Parnham (Eds.), Principles of Immunopharmacology, Birkhäuser, Basel, 2005: pp. 45–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Data & Knowledge Engineering.

Blog post
T. Hale, Almost 6,000 Years Of Civilization Are Shown In This Interactive Map, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Maritime Administration: Stronger Management Controls Needed Over Vessels in Title XI Custody, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
P.J. Davis, A comparison of a high and low -performing school in the Soroti Catholic Diocese, Uganda, East -Africa, Doctoral dissertation, Northcentral University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
J. Leland, Shepard’s Playground, New York Times. (2017) C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleData & Knowledge Engineering
AbbreviationData Knowl. Eng.
ISSN (print)0169-023X
ScopeInformation Systems and Management

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