How to format your references using the Dairy Science & Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dairy Science & Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Maxmen A (2015) Three technologies that changed genetics. Nature 528:S2-3
A journal article with 2 authors
Hamm JM, Hess O (2013) Physics. Two two-dimensional materials are better than one. Science 340:1298–1299
A journal article with 3 authors
Martill DM, Tischlinger H, Longrich NR (2015) EVOLUTION. A four-legged snake from the Early Cretaceous of Gondwana. Science 349:416–419
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wang Y, Cao H, Zhang G, et al (2013) Autotrophic microbe metagenomes and metabolic pathways differentiate adjacent Red Sea brine pools. Sci Rep 3:1748

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ramm AG, Hoang NS (2011) Dynamical Systems Method and Applications. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Balla T, Wymann M, York JD (eds) (2012) Phosphoinositides II: The Diverse Biological Functions. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht
A chapter in an edited book
Sunderland N, Kendall E, Marshall CA, Barlow L (2016) I’ll Paint you a Picture and You’ll Hear my Story: Broadening the Scope of Narrative Research for Arts-Based Service Learning. In: Bartleet B-L, Bennett D, Power A, Sunderland N (eds) Engaging First Peoples in Arts-Based Service Learning: Towards Respectful and Mutually Beneficial Educational Practices. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 71–81

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dairy Science & Technology.

Blog post
Andrew D (2016) Gravitational Waves Found Again: Here’s How They Could Whisper The Universe’s Secrets. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1988) ADP Planning: Challenges at the U.S. Transportation Command. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Alameddine A (2013) Perceptions of executives from seven selected companies of the use of social media in marketing practices. Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Murphy MJO (2015) Weekend Entertainments From the Archives of The New York Times. New York Times C25

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Maxmen 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Hamm and Hess 2013; Maxmen 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hamm and Hess 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleDairy Science & Technology
AbbreviationDairy Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)1958-5586
ISSN (online)1958-5594
ScopeFood Science

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