How to format your references using the Dairy Science & Technology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Dairy Science & Technology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fuyuno I (2005) Ancient foil maker wraps up mobile-phone market. Nature 436:775
A journal article with 2 authors
Greenamyre JT, Hastings TG (2004) Biomedicine. Parkinson’s--divergent causes, convergent mechanisms. Science 304:1120–1122
A journal article with 3 authors
Mori MX, Erickson MG, Yue DT (2004) Functional stoichiometry and local enrichment of calmodulin interacting with Ca2+ channels. Science 304:432–435
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lu H-X, Cao L-Z, Zhao J-Q, et al (2014) Extreme violation of local realism with a hyper-entangled four-photon-eight-qubit Greenberger-Horne-Zelinger state. Sci Rep 4:4476

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shanmugam R, Chattamvelli R (2015) Statistics for Scientists and Engineers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ
An edited book
Ruppert D (2015) Statistics and Data Analysis for Financial Engineering: with R examples, 2nd ed. 2015. Springer, New York, NY
A chapter in an edited book
Arous GB, Gayrard V, Kuptsov A (2008) A New REM Conjecture. In: Sidoravicius V, Vares ME (eds) In and Out of Equilibrium 2. Birkhäuser, Basel, pp 59–96

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Dairy Science & Technology.

Blog post
Luntz S (2014) Germany Now Produces Half Of Its Energy Using Solar. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1991) Airline Competition: Effects of Airline Market Concentration and Barriers to Entry on Airfares. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Russo DA (2010) Cancer: Modeling the distribution of sizes of detectable metastases. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller B, Schweber N (2015) Brooklyn Fire Kills 7 Children, Worst Toll in City Since 2007. New York Times A1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Fuyuno 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Greenamyre and Hastings 2004; Fuyuno 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Greenamyre and Hastings 2004)
  • Three or more authors: (Lu et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleDairy Science & Technology
AbbreviationDairy Sci. Technol.
ISSN (print)1958-5586
ISSN (online)1958-5594
ScopeFood Science

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