How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
B. Rocha, Comment on “Thymic origin of intestinal alphabeta T cells revealed by fate mapping of RORgammat+ cells,” Science. 308 (2005) 1553; author reply 1553.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Rogers, H. Dragert, Episodic tremor and slip on the Cascadia subduction zone: the chatter of silent slip, Science. 300 (2003) 1942–1943.
A journal article with 3 authors
F. Preusser, D. Radies, A. Matter, A 160,000-year record of dune development and atmospheric circulation in Southern Arabia, Science. 296 (2002) 2018–2020.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
L. Jiang, N. Kiselova, J. Rosén, L.L. Ilag, Quantification of neurotoxin BMAA (β-N-methylamino-L-alanine) in seafood from Swedish markets, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6931.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.K. Parashar, Reaction Mechanisms in Organic Synthesis, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., West Sussex, United Kingdom, 2008.
An edited book
N. Bessis, C. Dobre, eds., Big Data and Internet of Things: A Roadmap for Smart Environments, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Barth, Embedded DRAM in Nano-scale Technologies, in: K. Zhang (Ed.), Embedded Memories for Nano-Scale VLSIs, Springer US, Boston, MA, 2009: pp. 127–175.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science.

Blog post
S. Luntz, Jupiter and Venus to Align Early Monday Morning, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Software Tools and Techniques, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1985.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J. Brothers, Nonparametric regression using wavelet transformations and noise reduction in audio signals, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Apuzzo, E. Huetteman, White House Knew Flynn Lied, Ex-Official Testifies, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.
ISSN (print)1359-0286
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

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