How to format your references using the Current Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Current Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Z. Fisk, Physics. A whiff of chemistry in heavy electron physics, Science. 318 (2007) 1559–1560.
A journal article with 2 authors
G. Cheng, S.-Y. Zheng, Construction of a high-performance magnetic enzyme nanosystem for rapid tryptic digestion, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6947.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.K. Tripathi, K.C. Sahu, R. Govindarajan, Why a falling drop does not in general behave like a rising bubble, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 4771.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
W.E. Balch, R.I. Morimoto, A. Dillin, J.W. Kelly, Adapting proteostasis for disease intervention, Science. 319 (2008) 916–919.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J.P. Cowan, The Effects of Sound on People, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2016.
An edited book
M.A. Borowitzka, N.R. Moheimani, eds., Algae for Biofuels and Energy, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
C. Wight, Morphogenesis, Continuity and Change in the International Political System, in: M.S. Archer (Ed.), Social Morphogenesis, Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2013: pp. 85–101.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Current Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science.

Blog post
J. Davis, M&M-Spewing Drones Employed To Tackle The Plague In Endangered Ferrets, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Transportation-Disadvantaged Seniors: Efforts to Enhance Senior Mobility Could Benefit from Additional Guidance and Information, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
G. Rossi, Anesthesiology, geriatric surgery, and the risk of post-operative cognitive dysfunction, Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
A. Light, Guardian Anger, New York Times. (2012) MM14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleCurrent Opinion in Solid State & Materials Science
AbbreviationCurr. Opin. Solid State Mater. Sci.
ISSN (print)1359-0286
ScopeGeneral Materials Science

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