How to format your references using the Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Noffke, N. (2009). Journal club. An astrobiologist considers life’s oldest oxygen. Nature, 457(7232), 939.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gray, N., & Chouard, T. (2009). Neurotechniques. Nature, 461(7266), 899.
A journal article with 3 authors
Biertümpfel, C., Yang, W., & Suck, D. (2007). Crystal structure of T4 endonuclease VII resolving a Holliday junction. Nature, 449(7162), 616–620.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Amelung, F., Jónsson, S., Zebker, H., & Segall, P. (2000). Widespread uplift and “trapdoor” faulting on Galápagos volcanoes observed with radar interferometry. Nature, 407(6807), 993–996.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Scott, K. (2017). Sustainable and Green Electrochemical Science and Technology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Arora, R. (Ed.). (2016). Conquering Big Data with High Performance Computing. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Raines, J. K., & Almeida, J. I. (2010). Pulse Volume Recording in the Diagnosis of Peripheral Vascular Disease. In A. F. AbuRahma & J. J. Bergan (Eds.), Noninvasive Peripheral Arterial Diagnosis (pp. 39–46). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Crisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2014, November 3). Scientists Develop Brain Decoder That Can Read Your Inner Thoughts. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (No. GAO-05-29R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hudson, K. R. (2012). Student perception of teachers’ National Council for the Accreditation of Teacher Education and California Commission on Teacher Credentialing dispositions (Doctoral dissertation). Pepperdine University, Malibu, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly, K. (2017, January 26). Trump Adviser’s $285 Million Exit Pay Questioned as to Possible Goldman Influence. New York Times, p. A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Noffke, 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Gray & Chouard, 2009; Noffke, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gray & Chouard, 2009)
  • Three authors: (Biertümpfel, Yang, & Suck, 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Amelung, Jónsson, Zebker, & Segall, 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleCrisis: The Journal of Crisis Intervention and Suicide Prevention
ISSN (print)0227-5910
ISSN (online)2151-2396
ScopePsychiatry and Mental health

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