How to format your references using the CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Garde, S. Physical chemistry: Hydrophobic interactions in context. Nature 517, 277–279 (2015).
A journal article with 2 authors
Schwalb, N. K. & Temps, F. Base sequence and higher-order structure induce the complex excited-state dynamics in DNA. Science 322, 243–245 (2008).
A journal article with 3 authors
Nowak, M. A., Tarnita, C. E. & Wilson, E. O. The evolution of eusociality. Nature 466, 1057–1062 (2010).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Nong, Y. et al. Glycine binding primes NMDA receptor internalization. Nature 422, 302–307 (2003).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertin, E., Crespi, N. & Pujolle, G. Architecture and Governance for Communication Services. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2013).
An edited book
Abeta Peptide and Alzheimer’s Disease: Celebrating a Century of Research. (Springer, London, 2007).
A chapter in an edited book
Conklin, M. Project Entity Matching across FLOSS Repositories. In Open Source Development, Adoption and Innovation: IFIP Working Group 2.13 on Open Source Software, June 11–14, 2007, Limerick, Ireland (Feller, J., Fitzgerald, B., Scacchi, W. & Sillitti, A.) 45–57 (Springer US, Boston, MA, 2007).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for CPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Animal Parenting: Mothers That Play Favorites, Why Whales Have Menopause, And Adults Who Have Sex With Infants. IFLScience (2015).at <>


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office DOT Headquarters: Unclear Whether Union Station Site Is Best Location. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1992).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Jernigan, M. B. Use of uprooted invasive buffelgrass (Pennisetum ciliare ) parent plants as thatch to reduce progeny seedling emergence. (2013).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J. With Trump and Press: Much Heat, Little Light. New York Times A18 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCPT: Pharmacometrics & Systems Pharmacology
AbbreviationCPT Pharmacometrics Syst. Pharmacol.
ISSN (online)2163-8306
ScopeCardiology and Cardiovascular Medicine

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