How to format your references using the Computing in Science & Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computing in Science & Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
D. W. Hilgemann, “Biochemistry. Oily barbarians breach ion channel gates,” Science, vol. 304, no. 5668, pp. 223–224, Apr. 2004.
A journal article with 2 authors
H. O. Jacobs and G. M. Whitesides, “Submicrometer patterning of charge in thin-film electrets,” Science, vol. 291, no. 5509, pp. 1763–1766, Mar. 2001.
A journal article with 3 authors
A. Bacci, J. R. Huguenard, and D. A. Prince, “Long-lasting self-inhibition of neocortical interneurons mediated by endocannabinoids,” Nature, vol. 431, no. 7006, pp. 312–316, Sep. 2004.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
D.-J. Zhao, Z.-Y. Wang, L. Huang, Y.-P. Jia, and J. Q. Leng, “Spatio-temporal mapping of variation potentials in leaves of Helianthus annuus L. seedlings in situ using multi-electrode array,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 5435, Jun. 2014.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
W. W. Minuth, R. Strehl, and K. Schumacher, Tissue Engineering. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, 2005.
An edited book
L. M. Rozmaryn, Ed., Fingertip Injuries: Diagnosis, Management and Reconstruction. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
W. Marquardt, J. Morbach, A. Wiesner, and A. Yang, “Upper Level,” in OntoCAPE: A Re-Usable Ontology for Chemical Process Engineering, J. Morbach, A. Wiesner, and A. Yang, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2010, pp. 109–162.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computing in Science & Engineering.

Blog post
S. Luntz, “Crows Understand Displacement Better Than Six Year Olds,” IFLScience, Jul. 24, 2014. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “NASA Performance Awards,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, B-196181, Sep. 1980.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
S. Skiold-Hanlin, “Functional and Ecological Aspects of the Mucus Trails of the Freshwater Gastropod Elimia potosiensis,” Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
B. Kenigsberg, “Moscow Never Sleeps,” New York Times, p. C9, Jun. 08, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputing in Science & Engineering
AbbreviationComput. Sci. Eng.
ISSN (print)1521-9615
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
General Engineering

Other styles