How to format your references using the Computing in Science & Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computing in Science & Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
S. B. Joye, “MARINE SCIENCE. Deepwater Horizon, 5 years on,” Science, vol. 349, no. 6248, pp. 592–593, Aug. 2015.
A journal article with 2 authors
V. Bianco and G. Franzese, “Critical behavior of a water monolayer under hydrophobic confinement,” Sci. Rep., vol. 4, p. 4440, Apr. 2014.
A journal article with 3 authors
C. Hunte, V. Zickermann, and U. Brandt, “Functional modules and structural basis of conformational coupling in mitochondrial complex I,” Science, vol. 329, no. 5990, pp. 448–451, Jul. 2010.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M. Halic et al., “Structure of the signal recognition particle interacting with the elongation-arrested ribosome,” Nature, vol. 427, no. 6977, pp. 808–814, Feb. 2004.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
B. Yakir, Extremes in Random Fields: A Theory and its Applications. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, 2013.
An edited book
W. Frisch, Plate Tectonics: Continental Drift and Mountain Building. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
S. Kim, S. Baik, Y. Jo, S. Moon, and D. Rhee, “Aerial Photograph Image Retrieval Using the MPEG-7 Texture Descriptors,” in Knowledge-Based Intelligent Information and Engineering Systems: 9th International Conference, KES 2005, Melbourne, Australia, September 14-16, 2005, Proceedings, Part II, R. Khosla, R. J. Howlett, and L. C. Jain, Eds. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer, 2005, pp. 31–36.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computing in Science & Engineering.

Blog post
K. Hamilton, “Food For Thought: Feeding Our Growing Population With Flies,” IFLScience, 06-Sep-2016. .


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “University Research: Policies for the Reimbursement of Indirect Costs Need to Be Updated,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, GAO-10-937, Sep. 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C. Barrett, “Racial congruence and its effects on social integration and school involvement: A multi-level model,” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LINDA GREENHOUSE; Karen W. Arenson contributed reporting from New York for this article, “U.S. WINS RULING OVER RECRUITING AT UNIVERSITIES,” New York Times, p. A1, 07-Mar-2006.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputing in Science & Engineering
AbbreviationComput. Sci. Eng.
ISSN (print)1521-9615
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
General Engineering

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