How to format your references using the Computing in Science & Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computing in Science & Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A. Tomasz, “Microbiology. Weapons of microbial drug resistance abound in soil flora,” Science, vol. 311, no. 5759, pp. 342–343, Jan. 2006.
A journal article with 2 authors
R. Singh and P. Cresswell, “Defective cross-presentation of viral antigens in GILT-free mice,” Science, vol. 328, no. 5984, pp. 1394–1398, Jun. 2010.
A journal article with 3 authors
P. R. Bandyopadhyay, H. A. Leinhos, and A. M. Hellum, “Handedness helps homing in swimming and flying animals,” Sci. Rep., vol. 3, p. 1128, Jan. 2013.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
E. Haller et al., “Realization of an excited, strongly correlated quantum gas phase,” Science, vol. 325, no. 5945, pp. 1224–1227, Sep. 2009.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
G. M. Zack, Financial Statement Fraud. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2012.
An edited book
E. A. Rozhkova and K. Ariga, Eds., From Molecules to Materials: Pathways to Artificial Photosynthesis. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
P. Dziegiel, B. Pula, C. Kobierzycki, M. Stasiolek, and M. Podhorska-Okolow, “Metallothioneins and Immune Function,” in Metallothioneins in Normal and Cancer Cells, B. Pula, C. Kobierzycki, M. Stasiolek, and M. Podhorska-Okolow, Eds. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2016, pp. 65–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computing in Science & Engineering.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, “SpaceX’s Dragon Capsule Arrives At ISS For First Time In Seven Months,” IFLScience, Feb. 23, 2017. (accessed Oct. 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, “Federal Patent Policy,” U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, T-RCED-87-26, Jun. 1987.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A. P. Corbin-Staton, “Contexts of parental involvement: An interpretive synthesis of qualitative literature using the meta-interpretation method,” Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University, Washington, DC, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
B. Kenigsberg, “Junction 48,” New York Times, p. C10, Mar. 02, 2017.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1], [2].
This sentence cites four references [1]–[4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputing in Science & Engineering
AbbreviationComput. Sci. Eng.
ISSN (print)1521-9615
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
General Engineering

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