How to format your references using the Computers & Industrial Engineering citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers & Industrial Engineering. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik, P. (2005). Making a move on mobility. Nature, 435(7042), 709.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schulz, H. N., & Schulz, H. D. (2005). Large sulfur bacteria and the formation of phosphorite. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5708), 416–418.
A journal article with 3 authors
Pronin, S. V., Reiher, C. A., & Shenvi, R. A. (2013). Stereoinversion of tertiary alcohols to tertiary-alkyl isonitriles and amines. Nature, 501(7466), 195–199.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Ouzounov, D. G., Ahmad, F. R., Müller, D., Venkataraman, N., Gallagher, M. T., Thomas, M. G., Silcox, J., Koch, K. W., & Gaeta, A. L. (2003). Generation of megawatt optical solitons in hollow-core photonic band-gap fibers. Science (New York, N.Y.), 301(5640), 1702–1704.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Safari, M., Ariff, M., & Mohamad, S. (2014). Sukuk Securities. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd.
An edited book
Triantaphyllou, E., & Felici, G. (Eds.). (2006). Data Mining and Knowledge Discovery Approaches Based on Rule Induction Techniques (Vol. 6). Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Chibbaro, S., Rondoni, L., & Vulpiani, A. (2014). Determinism, Chaos and Reductionism. In L. Rondoni & A. Vulpiani (Eds.), Reductionism, Emergence and Levels of Reality: The Importance of Being Borderline (pp. 99–120). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers & Industrial Engineering.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, May 11). Turns Out The Answer To Virtual Reality Sickness Is Right In Front Of Your Face. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2002). Customs Service Modernization: Third Expenditure Plan Meets Legislative Conditions, but Cost Estimating Improvements Needed (GAO-02-908). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Campbell, A. J. (2012). History transformed: Sengoku Daimyo in Japanese popular media [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Markoff, J. (2017, January 20). After a Retirement, Putting to Bed The Times’s First Email Address. New York Times, B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Smaglik, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Schulz & Schulz, 2005; Smaglik, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schulz & Schulz, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Pronin et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Ouzounov et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers & Industrial Engineering
AbbreviationComput. Ind. Eng.
ISSN (print)0360-8352
ScopeGeneral Computer Science
General Engineering

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