How to format your references using the Computers & Graphics: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers & Graphics: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Heritage J. Plant sciences. Will GM rapeseed cut the mustard? Science 2003;302:401–3.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Nadeau RM, McEvilly TV. Periodic pulsing of characteristic microearthquakes on the San Andreas fault. Science 2004;303:220–2.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Falkowski PG, Fenchel T, Delong EF. The microbial engines that drive Earth’s biogeochemical cycles. Science 2008;320:1034–9.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Ishikawa K, Takenaga K, Akimoto M, Koshikawa N, Yamaguchi A, Imanishi H, et al. ROS-generating mitochondrial DNA mutations can regulate tumor cell metastasis. Science 2008;320:661–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Smith V. Toni Morrison. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
[1]
Baleanu D, Guvenc ZB, Machado JAT, editors. New Trends in Nanotechnology and Fractional Calculus Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Amjad B. A4 Surgical Instruments. In: Carachi R, Agarwala S, Bradnock TJ, Lim Tan H, Cascio S, editors. Basic Techniques in Pediatric Surgery: An Operative Manual, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 11–20.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers & Graphics: X.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew D. We Have Almost Certainly Blown The 1.5-Degree Global Warming Target. IFLScience 2016. https://www.iflscience.com/environment/we-have-almost-certainly-blown-the-15degree-global-warming-target/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Technology Transfer: Administration of the Bayh-Dole Act by Research Universities. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1998.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Iwuagwu CI. Preventing the Spread of HIV Among Homeless Youth in California. Doctoral dissertation. Capella University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Baker AL, McKINLEY JC Jr. Bullet in Bronx Takes a Detour, Turning Deadly. New York Times 2017:A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers & Graphics: X
ISSN (print)2590-1486
Scope

Other styles