How to format your references using the Computers & Graphics: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers & Graphics: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ledford H. Taxi-cab teaching. Nature 2007;445:678–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
Steig EJ, Wolfe AP. Atmospheric science. Sprucing up Greenland. Science 2008;320:1595–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Zhuang J, Yu G-R, Nakayama K. A series RCL circuit theory for analyzing non-steady-state water uptake of maize plants. Sci Rep 2014;4:6720.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Hsu H-J, Liang M-R, Chen C-T, Chung B-C. Pregnenolone stabilizes microtubules and promotes zebrafish embryonic cell movement. Nature 2006;439:480–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ersoy OK. Diffraction, Fourier Optics and Imaging. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2007.
An edited book
Peiris C. Pro WCF: Practical Microsoft SOA Implementation. Berkeley, CA: Apress; 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
Griffith T, Rumble D, Mahajan P, Fidopiastis CM. Bio-reckoning: Perceptual User Interface Design for Military Training. In: Schmorrow DD, Fidopiastis CM, editors. Foundations of Augmented Cognition: 7th International Conference, AC 2013, Held as Part of HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 31–40.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers & Graphics: X.

Blog post
Hale T. The Leonid Meteor Shower Peaks TONIGHT - Here’s How To Watch. IFLScience 2015.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. The Army’s Multiple Launch Rocket System Is Progressing Well and Merits Continued Support. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chlarson-Varner G. Falls among older adults 65 years and older. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik J. Feeding Off Trump-Era Anxiety. New York Times 2017:C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers & Graphics: X
ISSN (print)2590-1486

Other styles