How to format your references using the Computers & Graphics: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers & Graphics: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Rapoport TA. Protein translocation across the eukaryotic endoplasmic reticulum and bacterial plasma membranes. Nature 2007;450:663–9.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Katoh H, Negishi M. RhoG activates Rac1 by direct interaction with the Dock180-binding protein Elmo. Nature 2003;424:461–4.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Deroche-Gamonet V, Belin D, Piazza PV. Evidence for addiction-like behavior in the rat. Science 2004;305:1014–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Wang X, Allen WE, Wright MA, Sylwestrak EL, Samusik N, Vesuna S, et al. Three-dimensional intact-tissue sequencing of single-cell transcriptional states. Science 2018;361.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
D’Amico G, Di Biase G, Janssen J, Manca R. Semi-Markov Migration Models for Credit Risk. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2017.
An edited book
[1]
Garrigue J, editor. Programming Languages and Systems: 12th Asian Symposium, APLAS 2014, Singapore, Singapore, November 17-19, 2014, Proceedings. vol. 8858. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Jacobs B, Pieters W. Electronic Voting in the Netherlands: From Early Adoption to Early Abolishment. In: Aldini A, Barthe G, Gorrieri R, editors. Foundations of Security Analysis and Design V: FOSAD 2007/2008/2009 Tutorial Lectures, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009, p. 121–44.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers & Graphics: X.

Blog post
[1]
Fang J. The Bizarre Life Of The Vampire Squid From Hell. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/plants-and-animals/vampire-squids-live-long-and-spawn-often/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Surface Transportation: Department of Transportation Should Measure the Overall Performance and Outcomes of the TIGER Discretionary Grant Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2014.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Blazer AE. “I Am Otherwise”: The Romance Between Poetry and Theory After the Death of the Subject. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University, 2003.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Gustines GG. Black Mask Plans YouTube Comics Channels and Animated Movies. New York Times 2015:B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers & Graphics: X
ISSN (print)2590-1486
Scope

Other styles