How to format your references using the Computers & Graphics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers & Graphics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Fabian AC. Radio galaxies. Bubbles, flows, and fields. Science 2002;296:1040–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gehrels N, Mészáros P. Gamma-ray bursts. Science 2012;337:932–6.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gupta AK, Anderson DM, Overpeck JT. Abrupt changes in the Asian southwest monsoon during the Holocene and their links to the North Atlantic Ocean. Nature 2003;421:354–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Wang H, Liu T, Huang Y, Fang Y, Liu R, Wang S, et al. Plasmon-driven surface catalysis in hybridized plasmonic gap modes. Sci Rep 2014;4:7087.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ghez R. A Primer of Diffusion Problems. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Lin F, Patel Z, editors. ENT Board Prep: High Yield Review for the Otolaryngology In-service and Board Exams. New York, NY: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Svenningsen SL. Small RNA Control of Cell-to-Cell Communication in Vibrio Harveyi and Vibrio Cholerae. In: Skjeltorp AT, Belushkin AV, editors. Evolution from Cellular to Social Scales, Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2008, p. 45–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers & Graphics.

Blog post
Andrew E. BICEP2 Team Admit Breakthrough Evidence For Big Bang Could Just Be Dust. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Administration of the Office of Education’s Student Financial Aid Program. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1974.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Belflower KE. The relationship between demographic and employment variables of job satisfaction among emergency nurses. Doctoral dissertation. University of Phoenix, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hodara S. The City as Gallery. New York Times 2014:WE7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers & Graphics
AbbreviationComput. Graph.
ISSN (print)0097-8493
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Human-Computer Interaction
General Engineering

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