How to format your references using the Computers & Graphics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers & Graphics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:


PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
[1]
Zaanen J. High-temperature superconductivity. Stripes defeat the Fermi liquid. Nature 2000;404:714–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
[1]
Griffin TM, Kram R. Penguin waddling is not wasteful. Nature 2000;408:929.
A journal article with 3 authors
[1]
Arimbasseri AG, Kassavetis GA, Maraia RJ. Transcription. Comment on “Mechanism of eukaryotic RNA polymerase III transcription termination.” Science 2014;345:524.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
[1]
Senju A, Southgate V, White S, Frith U. Mindblind eyes: an absence of spontaneous theory of mind in Asperger syndrome. Science 2009;325:883–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
[1]
Shapiro IM. Energy Audits and Improvements for Commercial Buildings. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2016.
An edited book
[1]
Marani E. The Pelvis: Structure, Gender and Society. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
[1]
Udugama A, Zhao L, Zaki Y, Goerg C, Timm-Giel A. End-to-End Performance Evaluation of Virtual Networks Using a Prototype Implementation. In: Pentikousis K, Agüero R, García-Arranz M, Papavassiliou S, editors. Mobile Networks and Management: Second International ICST Conference, MONAMI 2010, Santander, Spain, September 22-24, 2010, Revised Selected Papers, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2011, p. 38–49.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers & Graphics.

Blog post
[1]
Andrew E. Scientists Detect The Oldest, Most Distant Galaxy Known So Far. IFLScience 2015. https://www.iflscience.com/physics/scientists-detect-oldest-most-distant-galaxy-known-so-far/ (accessed October 30, 2018).

Reports

This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
[1]
Government Accountability Office. Industrial Policy: Case Studies in the Japanese Experience. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1982.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
[1]
Pookcharoen S. Metacognitive online reading strategies among Thai EFL university students. Doctoral dissertation. Indiana University, 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
[1]
Greenhouse L. The Kennedy Factor On the Roberts Court. New York Times 2006:42.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers & Graphics
AbbreviationComput. Graph.
ISSN (print)0097-8493
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Human-Computer Interaction
General Engineering

Other styles