How to format your references using the Computers & Graphics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers & Graphics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dickson D. Mathematicians chase the seven million-dollar proofs. Nature 2000;405:383.
A journal article with 2 authors
Scully MO, Svidzinsky AA. Physics. The Lamb shift--yesterday, today, and tomorrow. Science 2010;328:1239–41.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cossairt BM, Diawara M-C, Cummins CC. Facile synthesis of AsP3. Science 2009;323:602.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Nilsson D-E, Gislén L, Coates MM, Skogh C, Garm A. Advanced optics in a jellyfish eye. Nature 2005;435:201–5.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Shand MA. The Chemistry and Technology of Magnesia. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2006.
An edited book
Saari V. Continuous-Time Low-Pass Filters for Integrated Wideband Radio Receivers. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2012.
A chapter in an edited book
Cuevas E, Zaldívar D, Perez-Cisneros M. Ellipse Detection on Images Inspired by the Collective Animal Behavior. In: Zaldívar D, Perez-Cisneros M, editors. Applications of Evolutionary Computation in Image Processing and Pattern Recognition, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 53–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers & Graphics.

Blog post
Fang J. Researchers Discover The Same Swimming Technique In Over Two Dozen Unrelated Sea Creatures. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Involvement of the Office of Education, Department of Health, Education, and Welfare, in the Development of an Information System Called the College Suggestor. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1971.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Venter WM. People and Pride: A Qualitative Study of Place Attachment and Professional Placemakers. Doctoral dissertation. University of South Florida, 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Neuman W. Brutal Past and Promising Future Clash in Colombian City. New York Times 2015:A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers & Graphics
AbbreviationComput. Graph.
ISSN (print)0097-8493
ScopeComputer Graphics and Computer-Aided Design
Human-Computer Interaction
General Engineering

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