How to format your references using the Computers & Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computers & Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Rogers, C. S. (2000). Confounding factors in coral reef recovery. Science (New York, N.Y.), 289(5478), 391b.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gagliardi, L., & Roos, B. O. (2005). Quantum chemical calculations show that the uranium molecule U2 has a quintuple bond. Nature, 433(7028), 848–851.
A journal article with 3 authors
Han, C., Ding, H., & Lv, F. (2014). Demonstration of a refractometric sensor based on an optical micro-fiber three-beam interferometer. Scientific Reports, 4, 7504.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Galy, V., France-Lanord, C., Beyssac, O., Faure, P., Kudrass, H., & Palhol, F. (2007). Efficient organic carbon burial in the Bengal fan sustained by the Himalayan erosional system. Nature, 450(7168), 407–410.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Etube, L. S. (2000). Fatigue and Fracture Mechanics of Offshore Structures. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Balinsky, A. A. (2015). The Analysis and Geometry of Hardy’s Inequality (W. D. Evans & R. T. Lewis, Eds.). Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Tjulkins, F., Nguyen, A. T., Andersen, M., & Imenes, K. (2013). MEMS Accelerometer-Based Heart Monitoring System with Myocardial Fixation. In Y. Dekhtyar, A. Katashev, & L. Lancere (Eds.), International Symposium on Biomedical Engineering and Medical Physics, 10-12 October, 2012, Riga, Latvia (pp. 19–22). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computers & Education.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2014, October 21). Rock Gobies Only Need a Minute to Change Color. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Transportation Trust Funds (T-RCED-89-36). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tablason, J. M. (2014). Recollecting [Doctoral dissertation]. California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, July 29). Mets Cap Busy Day of Moves by Acquiring a Closer. New York Times, D2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Rogers, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gagliardi & Roos, 2005; Rogers, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gagliardi & Roos, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Han et al., 2014)
  • 6 or more authors: (Galy et al., 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputers & Education
AbbreviationComput. Educ.
ISSN (print)0360-1315
ScopeGeneral Computer Science

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