How to format your references using the Computer Standards & Interfaces citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Standards & Interfaces. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
E.P. Diamandis, Getting noticed is half the battle, Science. 349 (2015) 206.
A journal article with 2 authors
E.J. Nestler, D. Landsman, Learning about addiction from the genome, Nature. 409 (2001) 834–835.
A journal article with 3 authors
G.J. Sharam, A.R.E. Sinclair, R. Turkington, Serengeti birds maintain forests by inhibiting seed predators, Science. 325 (2009) 51.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
G.M. Schratt, F. Tuebing, E.A. Nigh, C.G. Kane, M.E. Sabatini, M. Kiebler, M.E. Greenberg, A brain-specific microRNA regulates dendritic spine development, Nature. 439 (2006) 283–289.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
J. Smed, H. Hakonen, Algorithms and Networking for Computer Games, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2017.
An edited book
O.O. Aalen, Survival and Event History Analysis: A Process Point of View, Springer, New York, NY, 2008.
A chapter in an edited book
J. Lindström, D. Plankina, H. Lideskog, M. Löfstrand, L. Karlsson, Functional Product Development: Criteria for Selection of Design Methods on Strategic and Operational Levels, in: Y. Shimomura, K. Kimita (Eds.), The Philosopher’s Stone for Sustainability: Proceedings of the 4th CIRP International Conference on Industrial Product-Service Systems, Tokyo, Japan, November 8th - 9th, 2012, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2013: pp. 25–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Standards & Interfaces.

Blog post
A. Carpineti, Jupiter Is Hit By 6.5 Fireballs Every Year, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Customs Service Modernization: Ineffective Software Development Processes Increase Customs System Development Risks, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1999.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.E. White, Female ministers in pastoral leadership: A phenomenological study, Doctoral dissertation, University of Phoenix, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Friedman, J. Schwartz, Warm Gulf Fuels the Rain and Gives It Nowhere to Go, New York Times. (2017) A13.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Standards & Interfaces
AbbreviationComput. Stand. Interfaces
ISSN (print)0920-5489
ScopeHardware and Architecture

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