How to format your references using the Computer Standards & Interfaces citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Standards & Interfaces. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
T. Hermann, Non-coding RNA: Antibiotic tricks a switch, Nature. 526 (2015) 650–651.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. Olson, D. Hanahan, Cancer. Breaching the cancer fortress, Science. 324 (2009) 1400–1401.
A journal article with 3 authors
M.D. Kärkäs, B.S. Matsuura, C.R.J. Stephenson, ORGANIC CHEMISTRY. Enchained by visible light-mediated photoredox catalysis, Science. 349 (2015) 1285–1286.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
A.M. Denli, B.B.J. Tops, R.H.A. Plasterk, R.F. Ketting, G.J. Hannon, Processing of primary microRNAs by the Microprocessor complex, Nature. 432 (2004) 231–235.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
D.R. Garrison, N.D. Vaughan, Blended Learning in Higher Education, Jossey-Bass, San Francisco, CA, USA, 2007.
An edited book
R. Marlina, R.A. Giri, eds., The Pedagogy of English as an International Language: Perspectives from Scholars, Teachers, and Students, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
J. von Stackelberg, Control of Distributed Autonomous Systems – How to Get a Swarm to Succeed over an Overwhelming Challenge, in: H. Unger, K. Kyamaky, J. Kacprzyk (Eds.), Autonomous Systems: Developments and Trends, Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 2012: pp. 41–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Standards & Interfaces.

Blog post
S. Luntz, The Water On Earth Predates The Formation Of The Sun, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Aviation and the Environment: Impact of Aviation Noise on Communities Presents Challenges for Airport Operations and Future Growth of the National Airspace System, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
A.L. Steffan, An examination of the correlation between ninth grade mathematics grades and student performance on the mathematics portion of the California high school exit examination, Doctoral dissertation, Pepperdine University, 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
S. Stellin, If Your Flight’s On-Time Ranking Seemed Too High, It Probably Was, New York Times. (2017) B5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Standards & Interfaces
AbbreviationComput. Stand. Interfaces
ISSN (print)0920-5489
ScopeHardware and Architecture

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