How to format your references using the Computer Speech & Language citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Speech & Language. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Insel, T.R., 2010. Rethinking schizophrenia. Nature 468, 187–193.
A journal article with 2 authors
Kim, N., Jinks-Robertson, S., 2009. dUTP incorporation into genomic DNA is linked to transcription in yeast. Nature 459, 1150–1153.
A journal article with 3 authors
Neal, C.R., Haggerty, S.E., Sautter, V., 2001. “Majorite” and “silicate perovskite” mineral compositions in xenoliths from Malaita. Science 292, 1015.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Zhang, Z., Sigle, W., Phillipp, F., Rühle, M., 2003. Direct atom-resolved imaging of oxides and their grain boundaries. Science 302, 846–849.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Filla, J.J., Brown, H.E., 2013. Prospect Research for Fundraisers. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Atlee, J.L., 2007. Perioperative Critical Care Cardiology, 2nd edition. ed, Topics in Anaesthesia and Critical Care. Springer, Milano.
A chapter in an edited book
Chou, C.-P., 2013. The Greatest Event in Life, A Farce in One Act, in: Chou, Chih-P’ing (Ed.), English Writings of Hu Shih: Literature and Society (Volume 1), China Academic Library. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 33–39.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Speech & Language.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2016. Why More Cities Need To Add Up The Economic Value Of Trees [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2011. Department of Energy: Advanced Technology Vehicle Loan Program Needs Enhanced Oversight and Performance Measures (No. GAO-11-745T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wilkinson, B., 2017. You Got to Pray Just to Make It Today: The Relationship between Disclosure Disconnects, Job Satisfaction, and Organizational Commitment among Atheistic Employees (Doctoral dissertation). Southern Illinois University, Edwardsville, IL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, M., 2017. Dudamel Condemns Venezuelan Politics. New York Times C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Insel, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Insel, 2010; Kim and Jinks-Robertson, 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Kim and Jinks-Robertson, 2009)
  • Three or more authors: (Zhang et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Speech & Language
AbbreviationComput. Speech Lang.
ISSN (print)0885-2308
ScopeHuman-Computer Interaction
Theoretical Computer Science

Other styles