How to format your references using the Computer Speech & Language citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Speech & Language. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Service, R.F., 2000. NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY: Element 107 Leaves the Table Unturned. Science 289, 1270.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shaw, A.S., Huang, Y., 2010. Immunology. CAR’ing for the skin. Science 329, 1154–1155.
A journal article with 3 authors
Rougier, G.W., Forasiepi, A.M., Martinelli, A.G., 2005. Comment on “Independent origins of middle ear bones in monotremes and therians” (II). Science 309, 1492; author reply 1492.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Wang, K.C., Kim, J.A., Sivasankaran, R., Segal, R., He, Z., 2002. P75 interacts with the Nogo receptor as a co-receptor for Nogo, MAG and OMgp. Nature 420, 74–78.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Coe, J.T., 2000. Unlikely Victory: How General Electric Succeeded in the Chemical Industry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Sergienko, V.P., 2015. Noise and Vibration in Friction Systems, Springer Series in Materials Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Chiu, M.-H., 2013. International Response for Part I: Bridging the Gaps Between Policy and Practice on Equity for Science Education Reforms, in: Bianchini, J.A., Akerson, V.L., Barton, A.C., Lee, O., Rodriguez, A.J. (Eds.), Moving the Equity Agenda Forward: Equity Research, Practice, and Policy in Science Education, Cultural Studies of Science Education. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, pp. 53–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Speech & Language.

Blog post
Fang, J., 2015. Neanderthals Used Eagle Talons to Make Jewelry [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2006. NASA: Sound Management and Oversight Key to Addressing Crew Exploration Vehicle Project Risks (No. GAO-06-1127T). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Rayford, S., 2014. A Qualitative Analysis of Mentoring Experiences and Perceptions of Female Students Enrolled in a Doctoral Program in Education at a Midwestern University (Doctoral dissertation). Lindenwood University, St. Charles, MO.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2016. Giants Are Said to Set Record (For Now) for Closer. New York Times B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Service, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Service, 2000; Shaw and Huang, 2010).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shaw and Huang, 2010)
  • Three or more authors: (Wang et al., 2002)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Speech & Language
AbbreviationComput. Speech Lang.
ISSN (print)0885-2308
ScopeHuman-Computer Interaction
Theoretical Computer Science

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