How to format your references using the Computer Speech & Language citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Speech & Language. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Crow, J.M., 2012. Obesity: insensitive issue. Nature 486, S12-3.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shannon, M.F., Rao, S., 2002. Transcription. Of chips and ChIPs. Science 296, 666–669.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cira, N.J., Benusiglio, A., Prakash, M., 2015. Vapour-mediated sensing and motility in two-component droplets. Nature 519, 446–450.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Milliron, D.J., Hughes, S.M., Cui, Y., Manna, L., Li, J., Wang, L.-W., Alivisatos, A.P., 2004. Colloidal nanocrystal heterostructures with linear and branched topology. Nature 430, 190–195.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Cohen, M., 2010. Mind Games. Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK.
An edited book
Jacob, W.J., Sutin, S.E., Weidman, J.C., Yeager, J.L. (Eds.), 2015. Community Engagement in Higher Education: Policy Reforms and Practice, Pittsburgh Studies In Comparative and International Education. SensePublishers, Rotterdam.
A chapter in an edited book
Thali, M., 2009. The Roles of Tetraspanins in HIV-1 Replication, in: Spearman, P., Freed, E.O. (Eds.), HIV Interactions with Host Cell Proteins, Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp. 85–102.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Speech & Language.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Eclipsing Binary Could Be A Supernova Model [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Year 2000 Computing Crisis: National Credit Union Administration’s Efforts to Ensure Credit Union Systems Are Year 2000 Compliant (No. T-AIMD-98-20). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Nguyen, T.H., 2015. Adolescent substance use family-based treatment: A grant proposal project (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney, K., 2009. A Cafe That Caters. New York Times NJ9.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Crow, 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Crow, 2012; Shannon and Rao, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shannon and Rao, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Milliron et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Speech & Language
AbbreviationComput. Speech Lang.
ISSN (print)0885-2308
ScopeHuman-Computer Interaction
Theoretical Computer Science

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