How to format your references using the Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging & Visualization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging & Visualization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vinković D. 2009. Radiation-pressure mixing of large dust grains in protoplanetary disks. Nature. 459(7244):227–229.
A journal article with 2 authors
Droser ML, Gehling JG. 2012. Paleontology. Old and groovy. Science. 336(6089):1646–1647.
A journal article with 3 authors
Campbell CT, Parker SC, Starr DE. 2002. The effect of size-dependent nanoparticle energetics on catalyst sintering. Science. 298(5594):811–814.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Lanzetti L, Rybin V, Malabarba MG, Christoforidis S, Scita G, Zerial M, Di Fiore PP. 2000. The Eps8 protein coordinates EGF receptor signalling through Rac and trafficking through Rab5. Nature. 408(6810):374–377.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zauderer E. 2006. Partial Differential Equations of Applied Mathematics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Koh JHL. 2015. Design Thinking for Education: Conceptions and Applications in Teaching and Learning. Chai CS, Wong B, Hong H-Y, editors. Singapore: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Abel T. 2007. Cultural Capital in Health Promotion. In: Kickbusch I, Potvin L, Pelikan JM, Balbo L, Abel T, editors. Health and Modernity: The Role of Theory in Health Promotion. New York, NY: Springer; p. 43–73.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging & Visualization.

Blog post
Luntz S. 2014. Physicists Observe Particle That Is Also An Antiparticle. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1995. Medicare Transaction System: Strengthened Management and Sound Development Approach Critical to Success. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lazareva O. 2010. Constructed wetland/filter basin system as a prospective pre-treatment option for aquifer storage and recovery and a potential remedy for elevated arsenic [Doctoral dissertation]. Tampa, FL: University of South Florida.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Healy J. 2013. Utah Judge Unexpected as a Hero to Gay People. New York Times.:A11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vinković 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Vinković 2009; Droser & Gehling 2012).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Droser & Gehling 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Lanzetti et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging & Visualization
AbbreviationComput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng. Imaging Vis.
ISSN (print)2168-1163
ISSN (online)2168-1171
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Biomedical Engineering
Computational Mechanics
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles