How to format your references using the Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging & Visualization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging & Visualization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Jerrett M. 2015. Atmospheric science: The death toll from air-pollution sources. Nature. 525:330–331.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wassarman KM, Saecker RM. 2006. Synthesis-mediated release of a small RNA inhibitor of RNA polymerase. Science. 314:1601–1603.
A journal article with 3 authors
Budday S, Raybaud C, Kuhl E. 2014. A mechanical model predicts morphological abnormalities in the developing human brain. Sci Rep. 4:5644.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Fujii M, Kawai K, Egami Y, Araki N. 2013. Dissecting the roles of Rac1 activation and deactivation in macropinocytosis using microscopic photo-manipulation. Sci Rep. 3:2385.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li Y. 2015. Computer Principles and Design in Verilog HDL. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Zhang L, Chan M, editors. 2016. Tunneling Field Effect Transistor Technology. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Kornau J, Albers H. 2012. Modeling Waste Characteristics and WtE Plants as a Tool for Optimum Operation Conditions. In: Karagiannidis A, editor. Waste to Energy: Opportunities and Challenges for Developing and Transition Economies. London: Springer; p. 83–105.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging & Visualization.

Blog post
Andrew D. 2016. A Military View On Climate Change: It’s Eroding Our National Security And We Should Prepare For It. IFLScience [Internet]. [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2005. 21st Century Challenges: Reexamining the Base of the Federal Government. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Adams CA. 2013. Impact of water management and agronomic practices on the performance of insecticide seed treatments against rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus Kuschel, in Mississippi rice [Doctoral dissertation]. Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Sophia Kishkovsky; Compiled by. 2005. Arts, Briefly; Rare Violin in the Spotlight. New York Times.:E2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Jerrett 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Wassarman & Saecker 2006; Jerrett 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Wassarman & Saecker 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Fujii et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging & Visualization
AbbreviationComput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng. Imaging Vis.
ISSN (print)2168-1163
ISSN (online)2168-1171
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Biomedical Engineering
Computational Mechanics
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

Other styles