How to format your references using the Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging & Visualization citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging & Visualization. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
White NJ. 2008. Qinghaosu (artemisinin): the price of success. Science. 320(5874):330–334.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shirts M, Pande VS. 2000. COMPUTING: Screen Savers of the World Unite! Science. 290(5498):1903–1904.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bazzini AA, Lee MT, Giraldez AJ. 2012. Ribosome profiling shows that miR-430 reduces translation before causing mRNA decay in zebrafish. Science. 336(6078):233–237.
A journal article with 12 or more authors
Smartt SJ, Maund JR, Hendry MA, Tout CA, Gilmore GF, Mattila S, Benn CR. 2004. Detection of a red supergiant progenitor star of a type II-plateau supernova. Science. 303(5657):499–503.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Quéguiner B. 2016. The Biogeochemical Cycle of Silicon in the Ocean. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Curwen P, Haucap J, Preissl B, editors. 2009. Telecommunication Markets: Drivers and Impediments. Heidelberg: Physica-Verlag HD.
A chapter in an edited book
Perez-Ruiz F, Herrero-Beites AM. 2014. Prevention and Treatment of Inflammation in Gout. In: Herrero-Beites AM, editor. Managing Gout in Primary Care. Tarporley: Springer Healthcare Ltd.; p. 53–66.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging & Visualization.

Blog post
Andrew E. 2015. Why Homeopathy Must Not Gain A Foothold In The UK. IFLScience [Internet]. [accessed 2018 Oct 30].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1977. Reorganization of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration’s Western Test Range at Vandenberg Air Force Base, California. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Chow BJ. 2016. Forming Infrastructural Materials by Mechanical Compaction of Lunar and Martian Regolith Simulants [Doctoral dissertation]. La Jolla, CA: University of California San Diego.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gaitskill M. 2015. An Unknowable Truth. New York Times.:M2174.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (White 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Shirts and Pande 2000; White 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Shirts and Pande 2000)
  • Three or more authors: (Smartt et al. 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Methods in Biomechanics and Biomedical Engineering: Imaging & Visualization
AbbreviationComput. Methods Biomech. Biomed. Eng. Imaging Vis.
ISSN (print)2168-1163
ISSN (online)2168-1171
ScopeComputer Science Applications
Biomedical Engineering
Computational Mechanics
Radiology Nuclear Medicine and imaging

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