How to format your references using the Computer Languages, Systems & Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Languages, Systems & Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Sabeti P. Genome-sequencing anniversary. The landscape of human evolution. Science 2011;331:690.
A journal article with 2 authors
Lotti M, Nicotera P. Toxicology: a risky business. Nature 2002;416:481.
A journal article with 3 authors
Plante OJ, Palmacci ER, Seeberger PH. Automated solid-phase synthesis of oligosaccharides. Science 2001;291:1523–7.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Mishima M, Pavicic V, Grüneberg U, Nigg EA, Glotzer M. Cell cycle regulation of central spindle assembly. Nature 2004;430:908–13.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Budisa N. Engineering the Genetic Code. Weinheim, FRG: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2005.
An edited book
Kusuoka S, Maruyama T, editors. Advances in Mathematical Economics. vol. 13. Tokyo: Springer Japan; 2010.
A chapter in an edited book
Balaram V, Kamala CT, Mathur R, Rao AS, Satyanarayanan M. PGE in Road Dust/Top Soil from Major Indian Cities: Implications on Human Health and Environment. In: Ramkumar M, editor. On a Sustainable Future of the Earth’s Natural Resources, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2013, p. 85–107.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Languages, Systems & Structures.

Blog post
Andrew E. New Evidence Suggests There Are More Dwarf Planets In Our Solar System. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Postsecondary Education: Student Outcomes Vary at For-Profit, Nonprofit, and Public Schools. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sontag M. Emotion and the Labeling Process. Doctoral dissertation. University of Cincinnati, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
David Goodman J, White R. 2nd Victim Found in Rubble of Brooklyn Building That Exploded. New York Times 2015:A26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Languages, Systems & Structures
AbbreviationComput. Lang. Syst. Struct.
ISSN (print)1477-8424
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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