How to format your references using the Computer Languages, Systems & Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Languages, Systems & Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Smaglik P. Eastern promises. Nature 2003;422:239.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sime LC, Wolff EW. Antarctic accumulation seasonality. Nature 2011;479:E1-2; author reply E2-4.
A journal article with 3 authors
Kaina N, Fink M, Lerosey G. Composite media mixing Bragg and local resonances for highly attenuating and broad bandgaps. Sci Rep 2013;3:3240.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Budowle B, Schutzer SE, Einseln A, Kelley LC, Walsh AC, Smith JAL, et al. Public health. Building microbial forensics as a response to bioterrorism. Science 2003;301:1852–3.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Barone S, Franco EL. Statistical and Managerial Techniques for Six Sigma Methodology. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2012.
An edited book
Cohen I. Noise Reduction in Speech Processing. vol. 2. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2009.
A chapter in an edited book
Nishino S. Histamine in Narcolepsy and Excessive Daytime Sleepiness. In: Baumann CR, Bassetti CL, Scammell TE, editors. Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment, New York, NY: Springer; 2011, p. 47–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Languages, Systems & Structures.

Blog post
O`Callaghan J. We’re Going To Find Out What Mars Sounds Like For The First Time In 2021. IFLScience 2016. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Higher Education: United States’ and Other Countries’ Strategies for Attracting and Funding International Students. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Oteng Y. Enquête sur la Pluralité Culturelle: Identité et Marginalisation dans le Roman Francophone Colonial et Postcolonial (Chraïbi, Kane, Kourouma, Boudjedra, Ben Jelloun). Doctoral dissertation. University of Cincinnati, 2001.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Powell M. An Athlete of His Time, Painted as a Top Villain. New York Times 2017:B8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Languages, Systems & Structures
AbbreviationComput. Lang. Syst. Struct.
ISSN (print)1477-8424
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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