How to format your references using the Computer Languages, Systems & Structures citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Computer Languages, Systems & Structures. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Alley RB. The key to the past? Nature 2001;409:289.
A journal article with 2 authors
Dufour SC, Felbeck H. Sulphide mining by the superextensile foot of symbiotic thyasirid bivalves. Nature 2003;426:65–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sakurai H, Daiko T, Hirao T. A synthesis of sumanene, a fullerene fragment. Science 2003;301:1878.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Kanzow T, Cunningham SA, Rayner D, Hirschi JJ-M, Johns WE, Baringer MO, et al. Observed flow compensation associated with the MOC at 26.5 degrees N in the Atlantic. Science 2007;317:938–41.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Minoli D. A Networking Approach to Grid Computing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2004.
An edited book
Sun QP, Tong P, editors. IUTAM Symposium on Size Effects on Material and Structural Behavior at Micron- and Nano-Scales: Proceedings of the IUTAM Symposium held in Hong Kong, China, 31 May–4 June, 2004. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
Menon HP, Narayanankutty KA. MRI/CT IMAGE FUSION USING GABOR TEXTURE FEATURES. In: Corchado Rodriguez JM, Mitra S, Thampi SM, El-Alfy E-S, editors. Intelligent Systems Technologies and Applications 2016, Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016, p. 47–60.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Computer Languages, Systems & Structures.

Blog post
Fang J. Garlic, Onions and Cow Stomach: A Medieval Solution for Modern Superbugs. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Polar Weather Satellites: NOAA Identified Ways to Mitigate Data Gaps, but Contingency Plans and Schedules Require Further Attention. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2013.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Lynch SD. Distortion of low-frequency acoustic signals by interaction with the moving ocean surface. Doctoral dissertation. University of California San Diego, 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Our Creation, Our Concern. New York Times 2006:WK1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComputer Languages, Systems & Structures
AbbreviationComput. Lang. Syst. Struct.
ISSN (print)1477-8424
ScopeComputer Networks and Communications

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