How to format your references using the Complex & Intelligent Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Complex & Intelligent Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
DeWeerdt S (2014) Microbiome: A complicated relationship status. Nature 508:S61-3
A journal article with 2 authors
Reik W, Dean W (2002) Back to the beginning. Nature 420:127
A journal article with 3 authors
Kainulainen J, Federrath C, Henning T (2014) Unfolding the laws of star formation: the density distribution of molecular clouds. Science 344:183–185
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Androutsellis-Theotokis A, Leker RR, Soldner F, et al (2006) Notch signalling regulates stem cell numbers in vitro and in vivo. Nature 442:823–826

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Esch GW (2015) Ecological Parasitology. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Duque G, Watanabe K (2011) Osteoporosis Research: Animal Models. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Srinivasan V, Mohamed M, Kato H (2014) Melatonin: Its Microbicidal Properties and Clinical Applications. In: Srinivasan V, Brzezinski A, Oter S, Shillcutt SD (eds) Melatonin and Melatonergic Drugs in Clinical Practice. Springer India, New Delhi, pp 57–69

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Complex & Intelligent Systems.

Blog post
Andrew E (2015) Insecticide-Drenched Nets Could Have Encouraged The Emergence Of Resistant Hybrid “Super” Mosquitoes. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1989) Actions to Mitigate Aircraft Noise at Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bowman K (2017) A Close Look at the 2014 Passage of the Illinois County School Facility Sales Tax in Greene County. Doctoral dissertation, Southern Illinois University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon M (2014) An Alternative to New York Hotels, if Not Welcome by All. New York Times B14

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComplex & Intelligent Systems
ISSN (print)2199-4536
ISSN (online)2198-6053

Other styles