How to format your references using the Complex & Intelligent Systems citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Complex & Intelligent Systems. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Luber-Narod J (2000) Soft money is hard to find. Science 290:453b
A journal article with 2 authors
Nguyen JH, Holmes NC (2004) Melting of iron at the physical conditions of the Earth’s core. Nature 427:339–342
A journal article with 3 authors
Cicerone RJ, Molina MJ, Blake DR (2012) Retrospective. F. Sherwood Rowland (1927-2012). Science 336:170
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Lallement R, Quémerais E, Bertaux JL, et al (2005) Deflection of the interstellar neutral hydrogen flow across the heliospheric interface. Science 307:1447–1449

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dowrick DJ (2005) Earthquake Risk Reduction. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Winther R, Gran BA, Dahll G (2005) Computer Safety, Reliability, and Security: 24th International Conference, SAFECOMP 2005, Fredrikstad, Norway, September 28-30, 2005. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Greiner K (2015) Psychotherapia Academica Universitatis: A Philosophical Argument for the Academic Discipline of Psychotherapy. In: Gelo OCG, Pritz A, Rieken B (eds) Psychotherapy Research: Foundations, Process, and Outcome. Springer, Vienna, pp 93–116

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Complex & Intelligent Systems.

Blog post
Andrew D (2017) China Says It Has Stopped Harvesting Organs, But Evidence Belies Its Claim. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1973) Evaluation of the Office of Economic Opportunity’s Performance Contracting Experiment. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ochse AR (2013) Targeted Killing, Drones and International Law: How U.S. Practice is Shaping International Law. Doctoral dissertation, George Washington University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wakin DJ, Walsh MW (2011) Other Orchestras Fear Paying Price for Philadelphia Pension Crisis. New York Times C1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleComplex & Intelligent Systems
ISSN (print)2199-4536
ISSN (online)2198-6053

Other styles