How to format your references using the Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Vaux, David L. 2012. “Research Methods: Know When Your Numbers Are Significant.” Nature 492 (7428): 180–181.
A journal article with 2 authors
Conner, Sean D., and Sandra L. Schmid. 2003. “Regulated Portals of Entry into the Cell.” Nature 422 (6927): 37–44.
A journal article with 3 authors
Bannard, Oliver, Matthew Kraman, and Douglas T. Fearon. 2009. “Secondary Replicative Function of CD8+ T Cells That Had Developed an Effector Phenotype.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 323 (5913): 505–509.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Adhyaksa, Gede Widia Pratama, Ga In Lee, Se-Woong Baek, Jung-Yong Lee, and Jeung Ku Kang. 2013. “Broadband Energy Transfer to Sensitizing Dyes by Mobile Quantum Dot Mediators in Solar Cells.” Scientific Reports 3: 2711.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Banks, David. 2012. An Introduction to Thermogeology: Ground Source Heating and Cooling. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Duncan, Ian D., and Robin J. M. Franklin, eds. 2013. Myelin Repair and Neuroprotection in Multiple Sclerosis. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Wu, Jiahai, Huangfu Yang, Xiaowei Gao, Juncai Ma, and Kuien Liu. 2014. “Where to Find Help When You Are in an Emergency?” In Web-Age Information Management: WAIM 2014 International Workshops: BigEM, HardBD, DaNoS, HRSUNE, BIDASYS, Macau, China, June 16-18, 2014, Revised Selected Papers, edited by Yueguo Chen, Wolf-Tilo Balke, Jianliang Xu, Wei Xu, Peiquan Jin, Xin Lin, Tiffany Tang, and Eenjun Hwang, 31–43. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, Jonathan. 2016. “Elon Musk Wants To Send Humans To Mars As Early As 2024.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2015. Highlights of a Forum: 3D Printing: Opportunities, Challenges, and Policy Implications of Additive Manufacturing. GAO-15-505SP. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Tablason, Jamie Meckel. 2014. “Recollecting.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Brantley, Ben. 2016. “Beyond the Brutal Headlines on Race, Voices of Despair and Hope.” New York Times, November 3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Vaux 2012).
This sentence cites two references (Vaux 2012; Conner and Schmid 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Conner and Schmid 2003)
  • Three authors: (Bannard, Kraman, and Fearon 2009)
  • 4 or more authors: (Adhyaksa et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCompare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education
ISSN (print)0305-7925
ISSN (online)1469-3623

Other styles