How to format your references using the Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Melcher, D. 2001. “Persistence of Visual Memory for Scenes.” Nature 412 (6845): 401.
A journal article with 2 authors
Langer, Robert, and David A. Tirrell. 2004. “Designing Materials for Biology and Medicine.” Nature 428 (6982): 487–492.
A journal article with 3 authors
Batista, Carlos A. Silvera, Ronald G. Larson, and Nicholas A. Kotov. 2015. “Nonadditivity of Nanoparticle Interactions.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 350 (6257): 1242477.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Blakemore, Colin, Richard Dawkins, Denis Noble, and Michael Yudkin. 2003. “Is a Scientific Boycott Ever Justified?” Nature 421 (6921): 314.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Askoolum, Ajay. 2007. System Building with APL + Win. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Gisi, Ulrich, I. Chet, and Maria Lodovica Gullino, eds. 2009. Recent Developments in Management of Plant Diseases. Vol. 1. Plant Pathology in the 21st Century, Contributions to the 9th International Congress. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Patel, Manish, and Sylvia Nagl. 2010. “Complexity and Model Integration: Formalisations.” In The Role of Model Integration in Complex Systems Modelling: An Example from Cancer Biology, edited by Sylvia Nagl, 57–76. Understanding Complex Systems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education.

Blog post
Evans, Katy. 2017. “New Guidelines Advise Giving Peanuts To Babies Early To Prevent Allergies.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2001. Telecommunications: Research and Regulatory Efforts on Mobile Phone Health Issues. GAO-01-545. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Villa, Juan. 2017. “Multicultural Training for Mental Health Professionals Working in the Juvenile Justice System.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, Kelly. 2000. “Beyond the Finish Line, Where Should Fans Gather?” New York Times, October 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Melcher 2001).
This sentence cites two references (Melcher 2001; Langer and Tirrell 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Langer and Tirrell 2004)
  • Three authors: (Batista, Larson, and Kotov 2015)
  • 4 or more authors: (Blakemore et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCompare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education
ISSN (print)0305-7925
ISSN (online)1469-3623

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