How to format your references using the Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kreeger, Karen. 2002. “Working Your Way into Industry.” Nature 419 (6902): 5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Cullimore, Julie, and Jean Dénarié. 2003. “Plant Sciences. How Legumes Select Their Sweet Talking Symbionts.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 302 (5645): 575–578.
A journal article with 3 authors
Mellor, Jack, Roger A. Nicoll, and Dietmar Schmitz. 2002. “Mediation of Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Long-Term Potentiation by Presynaptic Ih Channels.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 295 (5552): 143–147.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Watson, T. F., S. G. J. Philips, E. Kawakami, D. R. Ward, P. Scarlino, M. Veldhorst, D. E. Savage, et al. 2018. “A Programmable Two-Qubit Quantum Processor in Silicon.” Nature 555 (7698): 633–637.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Li, Fan. 2006. Developing Chemical Information Systems. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
McGee, Robert W., ed. 2009. Corporate Governance in Transition Economies. Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Ruland, Karl Christoph, and Jochen Sassmannshausen. 2015. “Non-Repudiation Services for the MMS Protocol of IEC 61850.” In Security Standardisation Research: Second International Conference, SSR 2015, Tokyo, Japan, December 15-16, 2015, Proceedings, edited by Liqun Chen and Shin’ichiro Matsuo, 70–85. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Danielle. 2016. “Climate Change Is Affecting All Life On Earth – And That’s Not Good News For Humanity.” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2013. FAA Facilities: Improved Condition Assessment Methods Could Better Inform Maintenance Decisions and Capital- Planning Efforts. GAO-13-757. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Miramontes, Adriana J. 2017. “Examining Eye Fixation Patterns during the Situation Present Assessment Method (SPAM) under Varying Levels of Workload.” Doctoral dissertation, Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bosman, Julie. 2014. “Judge Allows Conyers to Be on the Ballot in Michigan.” New York Times, May 24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Reichhardt 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Lewin 2009; Payne 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Cullimore and Dénarié 2003)
  • Three authors: (Mellor, Nicoll, and Schmitz 2002)
  • 4 or more authors: (Michel et al. 2007)

About the journal

Full journal titleCompare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education
ISSN (print)0305-7925
ISSN (online)1469-3623

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