How to format your references using the Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Stehr, Nico. 2015. “Climate Policy: Democracy Is Not an Inconvenience.” Nature 525 (7570): 449–450.
A journal article with 2 authors
Elmquist, Joel K., and Jeffrey S. Flier. 2004. “Neuroscience. The Fat-Brain Axis Enters a New Dimension.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 304 (5667): 63–64.
A journal article with 3 authors
Xue, Peng, Hao Qin, and Bao Tang. 2014. “Trapping Photons on the Line: Controllable Dynamics of a Quantum Walk.” Scientific Reports 4 (April): 4825.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Riddell, Brian E., Richard J. Beamish, Laura J. Richards, and John R. Candy. 2008. “Comment on ‘Declining Wild Salmon Populations in Relation to Parasites from Farm Salmon.’” Science (New York, N.Y.) 322 (5909): 1790; author reply 1790.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Kurimoto, Noriaki, David I. K. Fielding, and Ali I. Musani. 2011. Endobronchial Ultrasonography. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell.
An edited book
Lübberstedt, Thomas, and Rajeev K. Varshney, eds. 2013. Diagnostics in Plant Breeding. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Smeulders, David, Andrea Cortis, Jean Luc Guermond, and Denis Lafarge. 2005. “Pore Roughness Effects on Highfrequency Permeability.” In IUTAM Symposium on Physicochemical and Electromechanical Interactions in Porous Media, edited by G. M. L. Gladwell, J. M. Huyghe, Peter A. C. Raats, and Stephen C. Cowin, 53–60. Solid Mechanics and Its Applications. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2015. “What Causes Schizophrenia?” IFLScience. IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1998. GSA: Causes of Delay in the Federal Communications Commission Move to the Portals II Building. GGD-98-60R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hughes, Lesley L. 2010. “The Principalship: Preparation Programs and the Self-Efficacy of Principals.” Doctoral dissertation, Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Rebanks, James. 2017. “An English Shepherd in America.” New York Times, March 1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Stehr 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Stehr 2015; Elmquist and Flier 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Elmquist and Flier 2004)
  • Three authors: (Xue, Qin, and Tang 2014)
  • 4 or more authors: (Riddell et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleCompare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education
ISSN (print)0305-7925
ISSN (online)1469-3623

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