How to format your references using the Communicative & Integrative Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Communicative & Integrative Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lichtenthaler SF. Cell biology. Sheddase gets guidance. Science 2012; 335:179–80.
A journal article with 2 authors
Christensen ST, Ott CM. Cell signaling. A ciliary signaling switch. Science 2007; 317:330–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gleiche M, Chi LF, Fuchs H. Nanoscopic channel lattices with controlled anisotropic wetting. Nature 2000; 403:173–5.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Kato Y, Myers RC, Driscoll DC, Gossard AC, Levy J, Awschalom DD. Gigahertz electron spin manipulation using voltage-controlled g-tensor modulation. Science 2003; 299:1201–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McCallum H. Population Parameters: Estimation for Ecological Models. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Science Ltd; 2008.
An edited book
Cueto E. Proper Generalized Decompositions: An Introduction to Computer Implementation with Matlab. 1st ed. 2016. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhai Z, Kijewski-Correa T, Kareem A, Hachen D, Madey G. Citizen Engineering: Evolving OSS Practices to Engineering Design and Analysis. In: Hammouda I, Lundell B, Mikkonen T, Scacchi W, editors. Open Source Systems: Long-Term Sustainability: 8th IFIP WG 2.13 International Conference, OSS 2012, Hammamet, Tunisia, September 10-13, 2012. Proceedings. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. page 61–77.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Communicative & Integrative Biology.

Blog post
Taub B. Russian Fisherman Captures Insane-Looking Deep-Sea Creatures, But What The Hell Are They? [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Commuter Rail: Commuter Rail Issues Should Be Considered in Debate over Amtrak. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2006.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bhandari S. The Role of System of Systems in Additive Manufacturing. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bernard TS, Cowley S. Equifax Is Facing Harsh Scrutiny. If Only It Had Come a Bit Sooner. New York Times2017; :A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCommunicative & Integrative Biology
AbbreviationCommun. Integr. Biol.
ISSN (online)1942-0889
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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