How to format your references using the Communicative & Integrative Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Communicative & Integrative Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
O’Malley BW. Molecular biology. Little molecules with big goals. Science 2006; 313:1749–50.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tarasov L, Peltier WR. Arctic freshwater forcing of the Younger Dryas cold reversal. Nature 2005; 435:662–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Gruber N, Keeling CD, Bates NR. Interannual variability in the North Atlantic Ocean carbon sink. Science 2002; 298:2374–8.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Du D-Y, Qin J-S, Sun Z, Yan L-K, O’Keeffe M, Su Z-M, Li S-L, Wang X-H, Wang X-L, Lan Y-Q. An unprecedented (3,4,24)-connected heteropolyoxozincate organic framework as heterogeneous crystalline Lewis acid catalyst for biodiesel production. Sci Rep 2013; 3:2616.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Horton I. Ivor Horton’s Beginning Visual C++® 2010. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2010.
An edited book
Firoozye NB. Managing Uncertainty, Mitigating Risk: Tackling the Unknown in Financial Risk Assessment and Decision Making. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Hiedanpää J, Bromley DW. Stakeholders. In: Bromley DW, editor. Environmental Heresies: The Quest for Reasonable. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016. page 73–90.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Communicative & Integrative Biology.

Blog post
Hamilton K. Can Environmentalists Learn To Love – Or Just Tolerate – Nuclear Power? [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Protest of Contract Award to NASA by City of Los Angeles. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1979.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Pham MM-X. Flymed Pharmacy, LLC, Home Delivery Services a Business Plan. 2017;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kolomatsky M. How Much Space for the Money? New York Times2017; :RE2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCommunicative & Integrative Biology
AbbreviationCommun. Integr. Biol.
ISSN (online)1942-0889
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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