How to format your references using the Communicative & Integrative Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Communicative & Integrative Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Dalton R. Palaeoanthropology: face to face with our past. Nature 2002; 420:735–6.
A journal article with 2 authors
Prado MTP, Cepeda-Jiménez CM. Materials science: Strength ceiling smashed for light metals. Nature 2015; 528:486–7.
A journal article with 3 authors
Vukusic P, Hallam B, Noyes J. Brilliant whiteness in ultrathin beetle scales. Science 2007; 315:348.
A journal article with 11 or more authors
Whittaker JM, Müller RD, Roest WR, Wessel P, Smith WHF. How supercontinents and superoceans affect seafloor roughness. Nature 2008; 456:938–41.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brigo D, Morini M, Pallavicini A. Counterparty Credit Risk, Collateral and Funding. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Coudel E, Devautour H, Soulard CT, Faure G, Hubert B, editors. Renewing innovation systems in agriculture and food: How to go towards more sustainability? Wageningen: Wageningen Academic Publishers; 2013.
A chapter in an edited book
Low FM, Tng E, Gluckman PD. Epigenetic Mechanisms. In: Buonocore G, Bracci R, Weindling M, editors. Neonatology: A Practical Approach to Neonatal Diseases. Milano: Springer; 2012. page 26–30.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Communicative & Integrative Biology.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Track Near-Earth Objects On Asteroid Day 2016 [Internet]. IFLScience2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]; Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Demand for the Social Security Administration’s Electronic Data Exchanges Is Growing and Presents Future Challenges. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zakharov D. The discrete Dirac operator and the discrete generalized Weierstrass representation in pseudo-Euclidean spaces. 2010;

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Koblin J. NBCUniversal Buys TV Rights to ‘Harry Potter.’ New York Times2016; :B2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleCommunicative & Integrative Biology
AbbreviationCommun. Integr. Biol.
ISSN (online)1942-0889
ScopeGeneral Agricultural and Biological Sciences

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