How to format your references using the Colombia Médica citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Colombia Médica. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ledford H. Cheap at any price? Nature. 2007 May 10;447(7141):131.
A journal article with 2 authors
Shohat S, Shifman S. Bias towards large genes in autism. Nature. 2014 Aug 7;512(7512):E1-2.
A journal article with 3 authors
Wynn TA, Chawla A, Pollard JW. Macrophage biology in development, homeostasis and disease. Nature. 2013 Apr 25;496(7446):445–55.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Klausmeier CA, Litchman E, Daufresne T, Levin SA. Optimal nitrogen-to-phosphorus stoichiometry of phytoplankton. Nature. 2004 May 13;429(6988):171–4.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Uriev NB. Technology of Dispersed Systems and Materials. Weinheim, Germany: Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA; 2016.
An edited book
Adler B, editor. Leptospira and Leptospirosis. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2015. VIII, 293 p. 37 illus., 12 illus. in color. (Current Topics in Microbiology and Immunology; vol. 387).
A chapter in an edited book
Herath D, Secchi D, Homberg F. The Effects of Disorganization on Goals and Problem Solving. In: Secchi D, Neumann M, editors. Agent-Based Simulation of Organizational Behavior: New Frontiers of Social Science Research. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 63–84.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Colombia Médica.

Blog post
Carpineti A. Gravitational Waves Help Unravel The History Of Black Holes [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2016 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Early Child Care and Education: HHS and Education Are Taking Steps to Improve Workforce Data and Enhance Worker Quality. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2012 Feb. Report No.: GAO-12-248.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Grijalva JA. Exploring cultural finance: A phenomenological approach to comparative cultural perceptions of money in Mexico [Doctoral dissertation]. [Scottsdale, AZ]: Northcentral University; 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Feeney K. Cheesecakes to Share, or Not. New York Times. 2007 Oct 7;14NJ14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (1).
This sentence cites two references (1,2).
This sentence cites four references (1–4).

About the journal

Full journal titleColombia Médica
AbbreviationColomb. Med.
ISSN (print)0120-8322
ISSN (online)1657-9534
ScopeGeneral Medicine

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