How to format your references using the Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
N. Loder, UK discussed ban on foreign job ads in 1960s, Nature. 403 (2000) 121.
A journal article with 2 authors
K. Hochedlinger, R. Jaenisch, Nuclear reprogramming and pluripotency, Nature. 441 (2006) 1061–1067.
A journal article with 3 authors
K.E. Filchak, J.B. Roethele, J.L. Feder, Natural selection and sympatric divergence in the apple maggot Rhagoletis pomonella, Nature. 407 (2000) 739–742.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
M.T. Croft, A.D. Lawrence, E. Raux-Deery, M.J. Warren, A.G. Smith, Algae acquire vitamin B12 through a symbiotic relationship with bacteria, Nature. 438 (2005) 90–93.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
E.R. Norwitz, M.A. Belfort, G.R. Saade, H. Miller, Obstetric Clinical Algorithms: Management and Evidence, Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, 2010.
An edited book
K.M.S. Thotahewa, Ultra Wideband Wireless Body Area Networks, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
I. Iacucci, L. Saba, M. Anzidei, Plaque Imaging, in: C. Catalano, M. Anzidei, A. Napoli (Eds.), Cardiovascular CT and MR Imaging: From Technique to Clinical Interpretation, Springer, Milano, 2013: pp. 55–70.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Colloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects.

Blog post
D. Andrew, Physicists Use Einstein’s ‘Spooky’ Entanglement To Invent Super-Sensitive Gravitational Wave Detector, IFLScience. (2017).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Social Security Administration: Fugitive Felon Program Could Benefit from Better Use of Technology, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2002.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
C.P. Horvath, Comparison of waste heat driven and electrically driven cooling systems for a high ambient temperature, off-grid application, Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, 2012.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
L. Greenhouse, Justices Let U.S. Transfer Padilla to Civilian Custody, New York Times. (2006) A22.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleColloids and Surfaces A: Physicochemical and Engineering Aspects
AbbreviationColloids Surf. A Physicochem. Eng. Asp.
ISSN (print)0927-7757
ScopeColloid and Surface Chemistry

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