How to format your references using the Cognition, Technology & Work citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognition, Technology & Work. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barabási A-L (2005) The origin of bursts and heavy tails in human dynamics. Nature 435:207–211
A journal article with 2 authors
Hu X, Zhou Q (2014) Novel hydrated graphene ribbon unexpectedly promotes aged seed germination and root differentiation. Sci Rep 4:3782
A journal article with 3 authors
Koechlin E, Ody C, Kouneiher F (2003) The architecture of cognitive control in the human prefrontal cortex. Science 302:1181–1185
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Gallopin T, Fort P, Eggermann E, et al (2000) Identification of sleep-promoting neurons in vitro. Nature 404:992–995

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Budisa N (2005) Engineering the Genetic Code. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim, FRG
An edited book
Hyakusoku H, Orgill DP, Teot L, et al (eds) (2010) Color Atlas of Burn Reconstructive Surgery. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Wan Z, He Y, Hao M, et al (2016) An Automatic Neuron Tracing Method Based on Mean Shift and Minimum Spanning Tree. In: Ascoli GA, Hawrylycz M, Ali H, et al. (eds) Brain Informatics and Health: International Conference, BIH 2016, Omaha, NE, USA, October 13-16, 2016 Proceedings. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 34–41

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognition, Technology & Work.

Blog post
Hamilton K (2016) Next Time You Ask The Doctor For Some Antibiotics – Consider Whether You’re Being Immoral. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2006) Aviation Security: Management Challenges Remain for the Transportation Security Administration’s Secure Flight Program. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Naughton CC (2013) Assessing Appropriate Technology Handwashing Stations in Mali, West Africa. Doctoral dissertation, University of South Florida

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J (2017) For Some Major Leaguers, It’s Always Great to See ‘Friends.’ New York Times D1

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Barabási 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Barabási 2005; Hu and Zhou 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hu and Zhou 2014)
  • Three or more authors: (Gallopin et al. 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognition, Technology & Work
AbbreviationCogn. Technol. Work
ISSN (print)1435-5558
ISSN (online)1435-5566
Computer Science Applications
Human-Computer Interaction

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