How to format your references using the Cognition & Emotion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognition & Emotion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Parkins, W. E. (2006). Energy. Fusion power: will it ever come? Science (New York, N.Y.), 311(5766), 1380.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sinha, D. K., & Smith, C. M. (2014). Selection of reference genes for expression analysis in Diuraphis noxia (Hemiptera: Aphididae) fed on resistant and susceptible wheat plants. Scientific Reports, 4, 5059.
A journal article with 3 authors
Schwarz, G., Mendel, R. R., & Ribbe, M. W. (2009). Molybdenum cofactors, enzymes and pathways. Nature, 460(7257), 839–847.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Schneble, D., Torii, Y., Boyd, M., Streed, E. W., Pritchard, D. E., & Ketterle, W. (2003). The onset of matter-wave amplification in a superradiant Bose-Einstein condensate. Science (New York, N.Y.), 300(5618), 475–478.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McBee, J. (2009). Mastering Microsoft® Exchange Server 2007 SP1. Wiley Publishing, Inc.
An edited book
Meester, F. D., Watson, R. R., & Zibadi, S. (Eds.). (2013). Omega-6/3 Fatty Acids: Functions, Sustainability Strategies and Perspectives. Humana Press.
A chapter in an edited book
Vardoulakis, S., Phoon, X., & Ochieng, C. (2010). Health Effects of Air Pollutants. In M. Lazaridis & I. Colbeck (Eds.), Human Exposure to Pollutants via Dermal Absorption and Inhalation (pp. 143–184). Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognition & Emotion.

Blog post
Davis, J. (2017, June 6). Earliest Evidence Of Human Impact On Geological Processes Is 11,500 Years Old. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). Department of Commerce Could Save $24.6 Million by Modifying Computer Procurement Actions (CED-82-81). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Williams, C. (2013). It’s not a beauty pageant!: An examination of leadership development through Alaska native pageants [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Arizona.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2003, January 9). The Czar Didn’t Sleep Here. New York Times, F1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Parkins, 2006).
This sentence cites two references (Parkins, 2006; Sinha & Smith, 2014).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sinha & Smith, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Schwarz et al., 2009)
  • 6 or more authors: (Schneble et al., 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognition & Emotion
AbbreviationCogn. Emot.
ISSN (print)0269-9931
ISSN (online)1464-0600
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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