How to format your references using the Cognition & Emotion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognition & Emotion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Simpson, R. W. (2000). SEISMOLOGY: Watching the Hayward Fault. Science (New York, N.Y.), 289(5482), 1147–1148.
A journal article with 2 authors
Schmitz, L., & Motani, R. (2011). Nocturnality in dinosaurs inferred from scleral ring and orbit morphology. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6030), 705–708.
A journal article with 3 authors
Swan, A., Cockerill, M., & Sipp, D. (2013). Advocacy: How to hasten open access. Nature, 495(7442), 442–443.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Budanov, A. V., Sablina, A. A., Feinstein, E., Koonin, E. V., & Chumakov, P. M. (2004). Regeneration of peroxiredoxins by p53-regulated sestrins, homologs of bacterial AhpD. Science (New York, N.Y.), 304(5670), 596–600.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bertocchi, M., Schwartz, S. L., & Ziemba, W. T. (2010). Optimizing the Aging, Retirement, and Pensions Dilemma. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Pelillo, M. (Ed.). (2013). Similarity-Based Pattern Analysis and Recognition. Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Gorji, A., Menhaj, M. B., & Shiry, S. (2009). Multiple Target Tracking for Mobile Robots Using the JPDAF Algorithm. In C. Koutsojannis & S. Sirmakessis (Eds.), Tools and Applications with Artificial Intelligence (pp. 51–68). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognition & Emotion.

Blog post
Luntz, S. (2014, February 18). 1/4 of American Adults Do Not Know That The Earth Orbits The Sun. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1999). Federal Research: Information on International Science and Technology Agreements (RCED-99-108). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Huber, J. A. (2012). Building an army: A corollary study of group interaction and group productivity [Doctoral dissertation]. Capella University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J. (2017, February 17). Bruce Arrived in Camp Expecting to Stay With Team. New York Times, B11.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Simpson, 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Schmitz & Motani, 2011; Simpson, 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Schmitz & Motani, 2011)
  • Three authors: (Swan et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Budanov et al., 2004)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognition & Emotion
AbbreviationCogn. Emot.
ISSN (print)0269-9931
ISSN (online)1464-0600
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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