How to format your references using the Cognition & Emotion citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Cognition & Emotion. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
White, M. F. (2015). Longevity: Mapping the path to a longer life. Nature, 524(7564), 170–171.
A journal article with 2 authors
Feng, W., & Takemoto, K. (2014). Heterogeneity in ecological mutualistic networks dominantly determines community stability. Scientific Reports, 4, 5912.
A journal article with 3 authors
Silva-Santos, B., Pennington, D. J., & Hayday, A. C. (2005). Lymphotoxin-mediated regulation of gammadelta cell differentiation by alphabeta T cell progenitors. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5711), 925–928.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Dean, C., Leakey, M. G., Reid, D., Schrenk, F., Schwartz, G. T., Stringer, C., & Walker, A. (2001). Growth processes in teeth distinguish modern humans from Homo erectus and earlier hominins. Nature, 414(6864), 628–631.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Petrozzi, S. (2012). Practical Instrumental Analysis. Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA.
An edited book
Lu, C., & Verbridge, S. S. (Eds.). (2016). Microfluidic Methods for Molecular Biology. Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Manfredi, G., Devy, M., & Sidobre, D. (2015). Textured Object Recognition: Balancing Model Robustness and Complexity. In G. Azzopardi & N. Petkov (Eds.), Computer Analysis of Images and Patterns: 16th International Conference, CAIP 2015, Valletta, Malta, September 2-4, 2015 Proceedings, Part I (pp. 52–63). Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Cognition & Emotion.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. (2016, October 3). Women Should Be Told About Their Breast Density When They Have A Mammogram. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1973). Expenditures for Public Affairs Activities (B-161939). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Wu, D.-M. C. (2010). Function and regulation of Drosophila myc during wing growth [Doctoral dissertation]. Columbia University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, S. (2010, July 13). Organizers Of Art Show Convicted In Moscow. New York Times, C2.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (White, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Feng & Takemoto, 2014; White, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Feng & Takemoto, 2014)
  • Three authors: (Silva-Santos et al., 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Dean et al., 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleCognition & Emotion
AbbreviationCogn. Emot.
ISSN (print)0269-9931
ISSN (online)1464-0600
ScopeArts and Humanities (miscellaneous)
Developmental and Educational Psychology
Experimental and Cognitive Psychology

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