How to format your references using the Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lok C. Plans to reduce acceptable arsenic limit put on hold. Nature 2001;410:503.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mayr G, Manegold A. Can ovarian follicles fossilize? Nature 2013;499:E1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Karlson RH, Cornell HV, Hughes TP. Coral communities are regionally enriched along an oceanic biodiversity gradient. Nature 2004;429:867–70.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Chiorescu I, Nakamura Y, Harmans CJPM, Mooij JE. Coherent quantum dynamics of a superconducting flux qubit. Science 2003;299:1869–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Ugeux G. International Finance Regulation. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2014.
An edited book
Murphy MP, Dukelow F, editors. The Irish Welfare State in the Twenty-First Century: Challenges and Change. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK; 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Fan C, Luo J, Wang W, Zhu B. Voronoi Diagram with Visual Restriction. In: Snoeyink J, Lu P, Su K, Wang L, editors. Frontiers in Algorithmics and Algorithmic Aspects in Information and Management: Joint International Conference, FAW-AAIM 2012, Beijing, China, May 14-16, 2012. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012, p. 36–46.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology: X.

Blog post
Andrew E. Meet Dreadnoughtus, the Mesozoic monster that patrolled Argentina 80 million years ago. IFLScience 2014. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Passenger Rail Security: Federal Strategy and Enhanced Coordination Needed to Prioritize and Guide Security Efforts. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2007.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ramos J. Surviving Childhood Bullying: Impact on Psychosocial Well-Being in Adulthood. Doctoral dissertation. California State University, Long Beach, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse L. Justices Curb Postal Service’s Immunity From Lawsuits. New York Times 2006:A21.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology: X
ISSN (print)2590-1443

Other styles