How to format your references using the Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Bartram J. Improving on haves and have-nots. Nature 2008;452:283–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang G, Or D. Trophic interactions induce spatial self-organization of microbial consortia on rough surfaces. Sci Rep 2014;4:6757.
A journal article with 3 authors
Jiang J-W, Zhuang X, Rabczuk T. Orientation dependent thermal conductance in single-layer MoS2. Sci Rep 2013;3:2209.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Guthöhrlein GR, Keller M, Hayasaka K, Lange W, Walther H. A single ion as a nanoscopic probe of an optical field. Nature 2001;414:49–51.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Srivastava SP. Developments in Lubricant Technology. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc; 2014.
An edited book
Lago M, Mysiak J, Gómez CM, Delacámara G, Maziotis A, editors. Use of Economic Instruments in Water Policy: Insights from International Experience. vol. 14. 1st ed. 2015. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
Summerville D, Skormin V, Volynkin A, Moronski J. Prevention of Information Attacks by Run-Time Detection of Self-replication in Computer Codes. In: Gorodetsky V, Kotenko I, Skormin V, editors. Computer Network Security: Third International Workshop on Mathematical Methods, Models, and Architectures for Computer Network Security, MMM-ACNS 2005, St. Petersburg, Russia, September 24-28, 2005. Proceedings, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2005, p. 54–75.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology: X.

Blog post
Davis J. Risk Of Cancer Increases With Height. IFLScience 2015. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: An Audit Guide For Assessing Acquisition Risks. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1992.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Beck NA. Mobile Apps for Cognitive Restructuring: A Review and Comparative Analysis. Doctoral dissertation. Pepperdine University, 2017.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Dominus S. Make ‘Em Laugh. New York Times 2016:MM38.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology: X
ISSN (print)2590-1443

Other styles