How to format your references using the Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology: X citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology: X. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Seeman P. Comment on “Diverse psychotomimetics act through a common signaling pathway.” Science 2004;305:180; author reply 180.
A journal article with 2 authors
Michaelis S, Hrycyna CA. Biochemistry. A protease for the ages. Science 2013;339:1529–30.
A journal article with 3 authors
Merritt JM, Bondybey VE, Heaven MC. Beryllium dimer--caught in the act of bonding. Science 2009;324:1548–51.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Androulidakis C, Koukaras EN, Frank O, Tsoukleri G, Sfyris D, Parthenios J, et al. Failure processes in embedded monolayer graphene under axial compression. Sci Rep 2014;4:5271.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Berto F. There’s Something about Gödel. Oxford, UK: Wiley-Blackwell; 2009.
An edited book
Gorrieri R, Wehrheim H, editors. Formal Methods for Open Object-Based Distributed Systems: 8th IFIP WG 6.1 International Conference, FMOODS 2006, Bologna, Italy, June 14-16, 2006. Proceedings. vol. 4037. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006.
A chapter in an edited book
He Y, Su Y. Silicon-Based Nanoagents for Cancer Therapy. In: Su Y, editor. Silicon Nano-biotechnology, Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2014, p. 75–91.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology: X.

Blog post
Carpineti C. New Test Spots Glaucoma Years Before Conventional Tests. IFLScience 2017. (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. School Lunch Program: Role and Impacts of Private Food Service Companies. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1996.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ortega S de. The Impact of Outcome Measurement on Non-profit Organizations: A Case Study. Doctoral dissertation. Ohio State University, 2006.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kelly D. Major Barbara. New York Times 2008:BR8.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology: X
ISSN (print)2590-1443

Other styles