How to format your references using the Clinician's Research Digest citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinician's Research Digest. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Nordhaus, W. (2007). Economics. Critical assumptions in the Stern Review on climate change. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5835), 201–202.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fields, S., & Johnston, M. (2005). Cell biology. Whither model organism research? Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5717), 1885–1886.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cui, G., Zhang, M., & Zou, G. (2013). Resonant tunneling modulation in quasi-2D Cu(2)O/SnO(2) p-n horizontal-multi-layer heterostructure for room temperature H(2)S sensor application. Scientific Reports, 3, 1250.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Gan, X., Stegle, O., Behr, J., Steffen, J. G., Drewe, P., Hildebrand, K. L., Lyngsoe, R., Schultheiss, S. J., Osborne, E. J., Sreedharan, V. T., Kahles, A., Bohnert, R., Jean, G., Derwent, P., Kersey, P., Belfield, E. J., Harberd, N. P., Kemen, E., Toomajian, C., … Mott, R. (2011). Multiple reference genomes and transcriptomes for Arabidopsis thaliana. Nature, 477(7365), 419–423.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Al-Malah, K. I. M. (2016). Aspen Plus®. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Peschek, G. A., Obinger, C., & Renger, G. (Eds.). (2011). Bioenergetic Processes of Cyanobacteria: From Evolutionary Singularity to Ecological Diversity. Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Hester, T., & Stone, P. (2012). Learning and Using Models. In M. Wiering & M. van Otterlo (Eds.), Reinforcement Learning: State-of-the-Art (pp. 111–141). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinician's Research Digest.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 29). It’s Not All About Aliens – Listening Project May Unveil Other Secrets Of The Universe. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1989). Computer Procurement: FAA’s $1.5-Billion Computer Resources Nucleus Project (IMTEC-89-44FS). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Black, A. M. (2006). Evaluating the Effectiveness of an Ohio Statewide Agricultural Leadership Program [Doctoral dissertation]. Ohio State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2004, October 21). World Briefing | Europe: Russia: Union Says A Million Strike. New York Times, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Nordhaus, 2007).
This sentence cites two references (Fields & Johnston, 2005; Nordhaus, 2007).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Fields & Johnston, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Cui et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Gan et al., 2011)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinician's Research Digest
ISSN (print)2169-6950
ISSN (online)2169-6985

Other styles