How to format your references using the Clinician's Research Digest citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinician's Research Digest. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zanette, D. (2008). Playing by numbers. Nature, 453(7198), 988–989.
A journal article with 2 authors
Butler, S., & Harrowell, P. (2002). Factors determining crystal--liquid coexistence under shear. Nature, 415(6875), 1008–1011.
A journal article with 3 authors
Komatsu, K., Murata, M., & Murata, Y. (2005). Encapsulation of molecular hydrogen in fullerene C60 by organic synthesis. Science (New York, N.Y.), 307(5707), 238–240.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Kaur, R., Kumar, R., Bhondekar, A. P., & Kapur, P. (2013). Human opinion dynamics: an inspiration to solve complex optimization problems. Scientific Reports, 3, 3008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sahinoglu, M. (2016). Cyber-Risk Informatics. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Castellanos, M., Dayal, U., & Miller, R. J. (Eds.). (2010). Enabling Real-Time Business Intelligence: Third International Workshop, BIRTE 2009, Held at the 35th International Conference on Very Large Databases, VLDB 2009, Lyon, France, August 24, 2009, Revised Selected Papers (Vol. 41). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Jakić, B. (2014). Galaxy and the New Wave: Yugoslav Computer Culture in the 1980s. In G. Alberts & R. Oldenziel (Eds.), Hacking Europe: From Computer Cultures to Demoscenes (pp. 107–128). London: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinician's Research Digest.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, June 18). After Years Of Conflict, Huge Project Could Help Scientists Decipher The Brain. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2008). Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Fiscal Year 2008 Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes (No. GAO-09-90R). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bonin, C. (2010). Spatial and temporal characteristics of electromagnetic activity in the brain prior to reaches to visual targets (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vlasic, B. (2013, July 25). Federal Judge Halts Legal Challenges in Detroit Bankruptcy Case. New York Times, p. A14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zanette, 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Butler & Harrowell, 2002; Zanette, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Butler & Harrowell, 2002)
  • Three authors: (Komatsu, Murata, & Murata, 2005)
  • 6 or more authors: (Kaur, Kumar, Bhondekar, & Kapur, 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleClinician's Research Digest
ISSN (print)2169-6950
ISSN (online)2169-6985

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