How to format your references using the Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Barnaby, W. Do nations go to war over water? Nature 458, 282–283 (2009).
A journal article with 2 authors
He, S. & MacLeod, D. I. Orientation-selective adaptation and tilt after-effect from invisible patterns. Nature 411, 473–476 (2001).
A journal article with 3 authors
Chin, G., Marathe, T. & Roberts, L. Population. Doom or vroom? Introduction. Science 333, 538–539 (2011).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Guzman, J. R. et al. Oxymatrine prevents NF-κB nuclear translocation and ameliorates acute intestinal inflammation. Sci. Rep. 3, 1629 (2013).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Soprano, A. Liquidity Management. (John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2015).
An edited book
Systems Biology: The Challenge of Complexity. (Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2009).
A chapter in an edited book
Chien, J.-T. Topic Modeling for Speech and Language Processing. In Modern Methodology and Applications in Spatial-Temporal Modeling (Peters, G. W. & Matsui, T.) 87–111 (Springer Japan, Tokyo, 2015).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics.

Blog post
Hamilton, K. Of Bears And Biases: Scientific Judgment And The Fate Of Yellowstone’s Grizzlies. IFLScience (2016).at <>


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office SSA Computers: Long-Range Vision Needed to Guide Future Systems Modernization Efforts. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 1991).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bustos, I. Backpacking Through My Suburban Barrio: Eco-Latina Diaries. (2017).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow, K. On Racy Christopher Street, Anxiety Over a Possible BID. New York Times 147 (2002).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
AbbreviationClin. Pharmacol. Ther.
ISSN (print)0009-9236
ISSN (online)1532-6535
ScopePharmacology (medical)

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