How to format your references using the Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chiorescu, I. Physics. Microwave cooling of an artificial atom. Science 314, 1549–1550 (2006).
A journal article with 2 authors
Butterworth, B. & Kovas, Y. Understanding neurocognitive developmental disorders can improve education for all. Science 340, 300–305 (2013).
A journal article with 3 authors
Grima, J. N., Attard, D. & Gatt, R. Materials science. Unusual thermoelastic properties of methanol monohydrate. Science 331, 687–688 (2011).
A journal article with 6 or more authors
Rao, H., Uhlmann, F., Nasmyth, K. & Varshavsky, A. Degradation of a cohesin subunit by the N-end rule pathway is essential for chromosome stability. Nature 410, 955–959 (2001).

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lemberger, P. & Morel, M. Managing Complexity of Information Systems. (John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ USA, 2012).
An edited book
Gales, J. Structural Fire Performance of Contemporary Post-tensioned Concrete Construction. (Springer, New York, NY, 2016).
A chapter in an edited book
Goerzen, C., Kong, Z. & Mettler, B. A Survey of Motion Planning Algorithms from the Perspective of Autonomous UAV Guidance. In Selected papers from the 2nd International Symposium on UAVs, Reno, Nevada, U.S.A. June 8–10, 2009 (Valavanis, K. P. et al.) 65–100 (Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht, 2010).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics.

Blog post
Andrew, E. Quantum Mechanics Just Got ‘Spookier’. IFLScience (2015).at <;


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office Proprietary Schools: Improved Department of Education Oversight Needed to Help Ensure Only Eligible Students Receive Federal Student Aid. (U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2009).

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Bemmel, E. P. A cost -effectiveness analysis of two community college baccalaureate programs in Florida: An exploratory study. (2008).

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kitfield, J. The Lingering Stench of Torture. New York Times A19 (2017).

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics
AbbreviationClin. Pharmacol. Ther.
ISSN (print)0009-9236
ISSN (online)1532-6535
ScopePharmacology (medical)

Other styles