How to format your references using the Clinical Parkinsonism & Related Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
A.M. Ellison, Political borders should not hamper wildlife, Nature. 508 (2014) 9.
A journal article with 2 authors
P. König, P.F.M.J. Verschure, Neuroscience. Neurons in action, Science. 296 (2002) 1817–1818.
A journal article with 3 authors
D.A. Siegel, S.C. Doney, J.A. Yoder, The North Atlantic spring phytoplankton bloom and Sverdrup’s critical depth hypothesis, Science. 296 (2002) 730–733.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
K. Kaufmann, F. Wellmer, J.M. Muiño, T. Ferrier, S.E. Wuest, V. Kumar, A. Serrano-Mislata, F. Madueño, P. Krajewski, E.M. Meyerowitz, G.C. Angenent, J.L. Riechmann, Orchestration of floral initiation by APETALA1, Science. 328 (2010) 85–89.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
T.M. Kowalick, Fatal Exit, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ, 2004.
An edited book
T. Kerikmäe, A. Chochia, eds., Political and Legal Perspectives of the EU Eastern Partnership Policy, 1st ed. 2016, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Deines, J.G. Fuselier, L. Long, H. Swisher, F.-T. Tu, Hypergeometric Series, Truncated Hypergeometric Series, and Gaussian Hypergeometric Functions, in: E.E. Eischen, L. Long, R. Pries, K.E. Stange (Eds.), Directions in Number Theory: Proceedings of the 2014 WIN3 Workshop, Springer International Publishing, Cham, 2016: pp. 125–159.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.

Blog post
J. Fang, Wolves Cooperate With Each Other, Dogs Form Hierarchies, IFLScience. (2014). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Airport and Airway Trust Fund Excise Taxes, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2004.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
B. Maranhao, Efficient identification of disease causative mutations with next generation sequencing technologies, Doctoral dissertation, University of California San Diego, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Haberman, M.D. Shear, G. Thrush, Bannon, Key Voice of Populist Right, Exits White House, New York Times. (2017) A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Parkinsonism & Related Disorders
ISSN (print)2590-1125

Other styles