How to format your references using the Clinical Parkinsonism & Related Disorders citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical Parkinsonism & Related Disorders. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
R.F. Keeling, Atmospheric science. Recording Earth’s vital signs, Science. 319 (2008) 1771–1772.
A journal article with 2 authors
A. Arnaoutov, M. Dasso, Enzyme regulation. IRBIT is a novel regulator of ribonucleotide reductase in higher eukaryotes, Science. 345 (2014) 1512–1515.
A journal article with 3 authors
J. Zhuang, G.-R. Yu, K. Nakayama, A series RCL circuit theory for analyzing non-steady-state water uptake of maize plants, Sci. Rep. 4 (2014) 6720.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
H. Ko, K. Takei, R. Kapadia, S. Chuang, H. Fang, P.W. Leu, K. Ganapathi, E. Plis, H.S. Kim, S.-Y. Chen, M. Madsen, A.C. Ford, Y.-L. Chueh, S. Krishna, S. Salahuddin, A. Javey, Ultrathin compound semiconductor on insulator layers for high-performance nanoscale transistors, Nature. 468 (2010) 286–289.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
R.S. Kenett, S. Zacks, D. Amberti, Modern Industrial Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK, 2013.
An edited book
J.L. Atlee, Perioperative Critical Care Cardiology, 2nd edition, Springer, Milano, 2007.
A chapter in an edited book
A. Becvar, J. Hollan, E. Hutchins, Representational Gestures as Cognitive Artifacts for Developing Theories in a Scientific Laboratory, in: C.A. Halverson, T. Erickson, W.A. Kellogg (Eds.), Resources, Co-Evolution and Artifacts: Theory in CSCW, Springer, London, 2008: pp. 117–143.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical Parkinsonism & Related Disorders.

Blog post
J. O`Callaghan, NASA Still Plans To Practice Saving Earth From An Asteroid, Even Without ESA’s Help, IFLScience. (2016). (accessed October 30, 2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, America COMPETES Act: It Is Too Early to Evaluate Programs Long-Term Effectiveness, but Agencies Could Improve Reporting of High-Risk, High-Reward Research Priorities, U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC, 2010.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
J.E. Whited, An Investigation of Struggling Learners’ Motivation to Read, Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
M. Billard, Step Down to Step Up, New York Times. (2010) E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical Parkinsonism & Related Disorders
ISSN (print)2590-1125

Other styles