How to format your references using the Clinical & Translational Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical & Translational Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Silverman EK. Perspective: How can genetics help? Nature 2012; 489: S7.
A journal article with 2 authors
Franks NR, Richardson T. Teaching in tandem-running ants. Nature 2006; 439: 153.
A journal article with 3 authors
Casanueva MO, Burga A, Lehner B. Fitness trade-offs and environmentally induced mutation buffering in isogenic C. elegans. Science 2012; 335: 82–85.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Prosperi M, Veras N, Azarian T, Rathore M, Nolan D, Rand K et al. Molecular epidemiology of community-associated methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the genomic era: a cross-sectional study. Sci Rep 2013; 3: 1902.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Çapin TK, Pandzic IS, Magnenat-Thalmann N, Thalmann D. Avatars in Networked Virtual Environments. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd: Chichester, UK, 2001.
An edited book
Cristofaro ED, Murdoch SJ (eds.). Privacy Enhancing Technologies: 14th International Symposium, PETS 2014, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, July 16-18, 2014. Proceedings. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2014.
A chapter in an edited book
Kim E, Park K, Kim H, Song J. I’ve Got Your Number: In: Rhee K-H, Yi JH (eds). Information Security Applications: 15th International Workshop, WISA 2014, Jeju Island, Korea, August 25-27, 2014. Revised Selected Papers. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2015, pp 55–67.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical & Translational Immunology.

Blog post
Andrew E. L’Oreal Wants To 3D Print Human Skin For Cosmetics Testing. IFLScience. 2015. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Comments on Senate Bill 991, A Bill to Establish a Department of Education. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1977.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Hendricks ED. Teaching teachers: A study of teacher educators’ perceptions of the effect of meeting mandated NCATE standards. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Parker J. Dear Diary (Volume 1 of 148). New York Times. 2016; : BR23.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical & Translational Immunology
AbbreviationClin. Transl. Immunology
ISSN (online)2050-0068

Other styles