How to format your references using the Clinical & Translational Immunology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical & Translational Immunology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Darnovsky M. A slippery slope to human germline modification. Nature 2013; 499: 127.
A journal article with 2 authors
Wang H, Glorius F. Chemistry. Lending handedness to the cyclopentadienyl ligand. Science 2012; 338: 479–480.
A journal article with 3 authors
Niemeier D, Gombachika H, Richards-Kortum R. How to transform the practice of engineering to meet global health needs. Science 2014; 345: 1287–1290.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Vishal M, Sharma A, Kaurani L, Chakraborty S, Ray J, Sen A et al. Evaluation of genetic association of the INK4 locus with primary open angle glaucoma in East Indian population. Sci Rep 2014; 4: 5115.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Center for Chemical Process Safety. Guidelines for Safe Process Operations and Maintenance. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.: Hoboken, NJ, 1995.
An edited book
Braga C, Ölveczky PC (eds.). Formal Aspects of Component Software: 12th International Conference, FACS 2015, Niterói, Brazil, October 14-16, 2015, Revised Selected Papers. 1st ed. 2016. Springer International Publishing: Cham, 2016.
A chapter in an edited book
Strenzke F. A Smart Card Implementation of the McEliece PKC. In: Samarati P, Tunstall M, Posegga J, Markantonakis K, Sauveron D (eds). Information Security Theory and Practices. Security and Privacy of Pervasive Systems and Smart Devices: 4th IFIP WG 11.2 International Workshop, WISTP 2010, Passau, Germany, April 12-14, 2010. Proceedings. Springer: Berlin, Heidelberg, 2010, pp 47–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical & Translational Immunology.

Blog post
Andrew D. A Geologist Has Found Part Of A Lost Ocean That Existed Long Before The Atlantic. IFLScience. 2016. (accessed 30 Oct2018).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. GSEs: Implications of Removing State and Local Tax Exemption. U.S. Government Printing Office: Washington, DC, 1994.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Morrison GK. Self-reported, interview-assisted diet records underreport protein and energy intake in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients. 2010.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky S. Parole Unlikely for Russian Oil Executive Jailed in Siberia. New York Times. 2007; : A4.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical & Translational Immunology
AbbreviationClin. Transl. Immunology
ISSN (online)2050-0068

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