How to format your references using the Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McNab BK. Metabolism: ecology shapes bird bioenergetics. Nature. 2003 Dec 11;426(6967):620–1.
A journal article with 2 authors
Villaume MT, Baran PS. Organic chemistry: Reactivity tamed one bond at a time. Nature. 2014 Sep 18;513(7518):324–5.
A journal article with 3 authors
Dvorak M, Oswald W, Wu Z. Bandgap opening by patterning graphene. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2289.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Yeromin AV, Zhang SL, Jiang W, Yu Y, Safrina O, Cahalan MD. Molecular identification of the CRAC channel by altered ion selectivity in a mutant of Orai. Nature. 2006 Sep 14;443(7108):226–9.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Paul CR. Transmission Lines in Digital Systems for EMC Practitioners. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2011.
An edited book
Lowes T. Pre-Hospital Anesthesia Handbook. 2nd ed. 2016. Gospel A, Griffiths A, Henning J, editors. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XXII, 208 p. 49 illus., 42 illus. in color.
A chapter in an edited book
Desrochers A, van Duinen G-J. Peatland Fauna. In: Wieder RK, Vitt DH, editors. Boreal Peatland Ecosystems. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2006. p. 67–100. (Caldwell MM, Heldmaier G, Jackson RB, Lange OL, Mooney HA, Schulze E-D, et al., editors. Ecological Studies).

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Bioengineers Build Circuit Board Modeled On The Human Brain [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Information Technology: Management Improvements Are Essential to VA’s Second Effort to Replace Its Outpatient Scheduling System. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2010 May. Report No.: GAO-10-579.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ouellette RL. Referral development results of relationship tie- strength for small business goal -directed networking groups [Doctoral dissertation]. [Phoenix, AZ]: University of Phoenix; 2008.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Ortved J. Enter, Hermès, West Coast Style. New York Times. 2017 Mar 10;ST14.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
AbbreviationClin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1442-6404
ISSN (online)1442-9071

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