How to format your references using the Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Diamond J. Unwritten knowledge. Nature. 2001 Mar 29;410(6828):521.
A journal article with 2 authors
Fan G, Yan D. Positional isomers of cyanostilbene: two-component molecular assembly and multiple-stimuli responsive luminescence. Sci Rep. 2014 May 12;4:4933.
A journal article with 3 authors
Antón SC, Potts R, Aiello LC. Human evolution. Evolution of early Homo: an integrated biological perspective. Science. 2014 Jul 4;345(6192):1236828.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Lu J, Marnell LL, Marjon KD, Mold C, Du Clos TW, Sun PD. Structural recognition and functional activation of FcgammaR by innate pentraxins. Nature. 2008 Dec 18;456(7224):989–92.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lindahl D. Multi-Family Millions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.; 2008.
An edited book
Rugini E, Baldoni L, Muleo R, Sebastiani L, editors. The Olive Tree Genome. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. XI, 193 p. 42 illus., 35 illus. in color. (Compendium of Plant Genomes).
A chapter in an edited book
Zhang Y, Koch CC, Ma SG, Zhang H, Pan Y. Fabrication Routes. In: Gao MC, Yeh J-W, Liaw PK, Zhang Y, editors. High-Entropy Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2016. p. 151–79.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Andrews R. Study Suggests Women Are Bisexual Or Gay, But Almost Never Straight [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Tax Systems Modernization: Status of Planning and Technical Foundation. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1994 Mar. Report No.: T-AIMD/GGD-94-104.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gallardo-Macias R. Tin (II) compounds as novel catalysts for the Kabachnik-Fields reaction: Studies in the synthesis of alpha-aminophosphonates under solvent free conditions and Synthesis of phosphonates and phosphates as reversible and irreversible inhibitors of butyrylcholinesterase [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Chira S. Jobs Men Don’t Want. New York Times. 2017 Jun 24;SR3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
AbbreviationClin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1442-6404
ISSN (online)1442-9071

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