How to format your references using the Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hilser VJ. Biochemistry. An ensemble view of allostery. Science. 2010 Feb 5;327(5966):653–4.
A journal article with 2 authors
Piou T, Rovis T. Rhodium-catalysed syn-carboamination of alkenes via a transient directing group. Nature. 2015 Nov 5;527(7576):86–90.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lillo F, Farmer JD, Mantegna RN. Econophysics: Master curve for price-impact function. Nature. 2003 Jan 9;421(6919):129–30.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
Coelho AS, Barbosa FAS, Cassemiro KN, Villar AS, Martinelli M, Nussenzveig P. Three-color entanglement. Science. 2009 Nov 6;326(5954):823–6.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Brigo D, Morini M, Pallavicini A. Counterparty Credit Risk, Collateral and Funding. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
Markman M, Saltz LB, editors. Colorectal Cancer: Evidence-Based Chemotherapy Strategies. Totowa, NJ: Humana Press; 2007. (Current Clinical Oncology).
A chapter in an edited book
Knopp T, Buzug TM. From Data to Images: Reconstruction. In: Buzug TM, editor. Magnetic Particle Imaging: An Introduction to Imaging Principles and Scanner Instrumentation. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer; 2012. p. 127–48.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical & Experimental Ophthalmology.

Blog post
Andrew E. Top 10 Space Science Stories From 2014 [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2015 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. Aviation Safety: Status of FAA’s Actions to Oversee the Safety of Composite Airplanes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2011 Sep. Report No.: GAO-11-849.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Taylor TE. Characterizing EGFRvIII-independent glioblastoma maintenance [Doctoral dissertation]. [La Jolla, CA]: University of California San Diego; 2016.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner J. Leg Injury May End Season for Cespedes. New York Times. 2017 Aug 26;D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in superscript:

This sentence cites one reference 1.
This sentence cites two references 1,2.
This sentence cites four references 1–4.

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical & Experimental Ophthalmology
AbbreviationClin. Experiment. Ophthalmol.
ISSN (print)1442-6404
ISSN (online)1442-9071

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