How to format your references using the Clinical & Experimental Metastasis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical & Experimental Metastasis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
McCammon C (2001) Geophysics. Deep diamond mysteries. Science 293:813–814
A journal article with 2 authors
Ciufolini I, Pavlis EC (2004) A confirmation of the general relativistic prediction of the Lense-Thirring effect. Nature 431:958–960
A journal article with 3 authors
Piscitelli CL, Krishnamurthy H, Gouaux E (2010) Neurotransmitter/sodium symporter orthologue LeuT has a single high-affinity substrate site. Nature 468:1129–1132
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Wille M, Nägler TF, Lehmann B, et al (2008) Hydrogen sulphide release to surface waters at the Precambrian/Cambrian boundary. Nature 453:767–769

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Beagle JR (2013) Surgical Essentials of Immediate Implant Dentistry. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Khendek F, Dssouli R (2005) Testing of Communicating Systems: 17th IFIP TC6/WG 6.1 International Conference, TestCom 2005, Montreal, Canada, May 31 - June, 2005. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Lo C-F (2014) The Soft Codification of the UNIDROIT Principles of International Commercial. In: Wang W-Y (ed) Codification in International Perspective: Selected Papers from the 2nd IACL Thematic Conference. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp 61–73

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical & Experimental Metastasis.

Blog post
Taub B (2015) This Drug Reverses The Effects of Opioid Overdoses. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1998) FCC: Implementation of Competitive Bidding for Commercial Broadcast and Instructional Television Fixed Service Licenses. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Villagomez GC (2017) Helping Foster Parents and Kinship Caregivers Support High School Graduation for Children in Their Care: A Self-Instructional Workbook. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Crow K (2001) Peace Breaks Out in Conflict Over Nobel Statue. New York Times 146

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical & Experimental Metastasis
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Metastasis
ISSN (print)0262-0898
ISSN (online)1573-7276
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine

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