How to format your references using the Clinical & Experimental Metastasis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical & Experimental Metastasis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Russell MJ (2003) Geochemistry. The importance of being alkaline. Science 302:580–581
A journal article with 2 authors
Michael PJ, Cheadle MJ (2009) Geochemistry. Making a crust. Science 323:1017–1018
A journal article with 3 authors
Yoshida S, Sukeno M, Nabeshima Y-I (2007) A vasculature-associated niche for undifferentiated spermatogonia in the mouse testis. Science 317:1722–1726
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Ullah H, Chen JG, Young JC, et al (2001) Modulation of cell proliferation by heterotrimeric G protein in Arabidopsis. Science 292:2066–2069

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Saadoun AP (2012) Esthetic Soft Tissue Management of Teeth and Implants. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd,., West Sussex, UK
An edited book
Choy WCH (2013) Organic Solar Cells: Materials and Device Physics. Springer, London
A chapter in an edited book
Votintseva A, Witschel P, Regnat N, Stelzig PE (2012) Comparative Study of Model-Based and Multi-Domain System Engineering Approaches for Industrial Settings. In: Vallecillo A, Tolvanen J-P, Kindler E, et al (eds) Modelling Foundations and Applications: 8th European Conference, ECMFA 2012, Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark, July 2-5, 2012. Proceedings. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 20–31

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical & Experimental Metastasis.

Blog post
Hale T (2016) Scientists Have Found A Weird Googly-Eyed Squid On The Seafloor. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (2002) Pipeline Safety and Security: Improved Workforce Planning and Communication Needed. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Sundell M (2009) From fine art to fashion: Man Ray’s ambivalent avant-garde. Doctoral dissertation, Columbia University

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Marx L (2015) The Gown Is Free, the Salute Heartfelt. New York Times ST23

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical & Experimental Metastasis
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Metastasis
ISSN (print)0262-0898
ISSN (online)1573-7276
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine

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