How to format your references using the Clinical & Experimental Metastasis citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Clinical & Experimental Metastasis. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Irion R (2000) KIP THORNE: The Shaman of Space and Time. Science 290:1488–1491
A journal article with 2 authors
Brunnschweiler CN, Bulte EH (2008) Economics. Linking natural resources to slow growth and more conflict. Science 320:616–617
A journal article with 3 authors
Sparrow B, Liu J, Wegner DM (2011) Google effects on memory: cognitive consequences of having information at our fingertips. Science 333:776–778
A journal article with 5 or more authors
Xu X, Graeff R, Xie Q, et al (2009) Comment on “The Arabidopsis circadian clock incorporates a cADPR-based feedback loop.” Science 326:230; author reply 230

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Fitzgerald RW, Meacham BJ (2017) Fire Performance Analysis for Buildings. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK
An edited book
Radü E-W, Sahraian MA (2008) MRI Atlas of MS Lesions. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg
A chapter in an edited book
Friedman DD, Deutsch S, Ertegun L, et al (2013) Becoming BabyWatchers: An Attachment-Based Video Intervention in a Community Mental Health Center. In: Bettmann JE, Demetri Friedman D (eds) Attachment-Based Clinical Work with Children and Adolescents. Springer, New York, NY, pp 99–114

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Clinical & Experimental Metastasis.

Blog post
Davis J (2015) An “Optical Dog’s Nose” Could Help Detect Cancer From Your Breath. In: IFLScience. Accessed 30 Oct 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office (1979) Department of Health, Education, and Welfare Standards of Employee Conduct Need Improvement. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Reich LM (2012) Adapted physical education teachers’ attitudes towards their students with hidden and visible disabilities. Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Vecsey G (2009) Michael Goldsmith, 58; Raised Awareness of A.L.S. New York Times D9

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1, 2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleClinical & Experimental Metastasis
AbbreviationClin. Exp. Metastasis
ISSN (print)0262-0898
ISSN (online)1573-7276
ScopeCancer Research
General Medicine

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