How to format your references using the City & Community citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City & Community. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gershon, D. 2000. “The Economic Impact of Silicon Valley’s Immigrant Entrepreneurs.” Nature 405(6786):598.
A journal article with 2 authors
Doumy, Gilles, and Louis F. DiMauro. 2008. “Chemistry. Interrogating Molecules.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 322(5905):1194–95.
A journal article with 3 authors
McNamara, John M., Zoltan Barta, and Alasdair I. Houston. 2004. “Variation in Behaviour Promotes Cooperation in the Prisoner’s Dilemma Game.” Nature 428(6984):745–48.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ma, Tianqiong, Eugene A. Kapustin, Shawn X. Yin, Lin Liang, Zhengyang Zhou, Jing Niu, Li-Hua Li, Yingying Wang, Jie Su, Jian Li, Xiaoge Wang, Wei David Wang, Wei Wang, Junliang Sun, and Omar M. Yaghi. 2018. “Single-Crystal x-Ray Diffraction Structures of Covalent Organic Frameworks.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 361(6397):48–52.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Port, Michael. 2008. Beyond Booked Solid. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Lu, Zhong. 2014. InSAR Imaging of Aleutian Volcanoes: Monitoring a Volcanic Arc from Space. edited by D. Dzurisin. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Ziegler, Holger, and Niels Rosendal Jensen. 2015. “New Conditions of Professional Work or the Fall of Professions? On Managerialism and Professionalism.” Pp. 53–70 in Facing Trajectories from School to Work: Towards a Capability-Friendly Youth Policy in Europe, Technical and Vocational Education and Training: Issues, Concerns and Prospects, edited by H.-U. Otto, R. Atzmüller, T. Berthet, L. Bifulco, J.-M. Bonvin, E. Chiappero-Martinetti, V. Egdell, B. Halleröd, C. C. Kjeldsen, M. Kwiek, R. Schröer, J. Vero, and M. Zieleńska. Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City & Community.

Blog post
Luntz, Stephen. 2017. “Blind Termites Tiptoe Past Watchful Ants.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1997. Customs Modernization. AIMD-97-43R. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fernandes, Joshua M. 2017. “Physical and Chemical Properties of Jupiter’s North and South Polar Vortex Revealed through Mid-Infrared Imaging.” Doctoral dissertation, California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Cooper, Michael. 2017. “Met Opera Loses Lead In a High-Stakes ‘Tosca.’” New York Times, June 16, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gershon 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Doumy and DiMauro 2008; Gershon 2000).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Doumy and DiMauro 2008)
  • Three authors: (McNamara, Barta, and Houston 2004)
  • 4 or more authors: (Ma et al. 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleCity & Community
AbbreviationCity Community
ISSN (print)1535-6841
ScopeUrban Studies

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