How to format your references using the City & Community citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City & Community. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Gardner, J. A. 2000. “Ars Longa, Vita Brevis.” Nature 408(6809):143.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hannonen, Minttumaaria, and Liselotte Sundström. 2003. “Sociobiology: Worker Nepotism among Polygynous Ants.” Nature 421(6926):910.
A journal article with 3 authors
Li, Chen, Tingnan Zhang, and Daniel I. Goldman. 2013. “A Terradynamics of Legged Locomotion on Granular Media.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 339(6126):1408–12.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Molofsky, Anna V., Ricardo Pardal, Toshihide Iwashita, In-Kyung Park, Michael F. Clarke, and Sean J. Morrison. 2003. “Bmi-1 Dependence Distinguishes Neural Stem Cell Self-Renewal from Progenitor Proliferation.” Nature 425(6961):962–67.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Takezawa, Kunio. 2005. Introduction to Nonparametric Regression: Takezawa/Introduction. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Kohlbacher, Florian, and Cornelius Herstatt, eds. 2008. The Silver Market Phenomenon: Business Opportunities in an Era of Demographic Change. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Park, Jae Jun, and Jae Hee Cheon. 2015. “Differential Diagnosis: Intestinal Tuberculosis.” Pp. 71–85 in Atlas of Inflammatory Bowel Diseases, edited by W. H. Kim and J. H. Cheon. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City & Community.

Blog post
Fang, Janet. 2016. “Humans Evolved Faster Metabolism To Support Our Bigger Brains.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 1999. Export Controls: International Space Station Technology Transfers. NSIAD-00-14. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Russo, Richard Anthony. 2009. “Using a Socio -Cultural Framework to Evaluate Farmland Preservation Policy Success in Maryland.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Hubbard, Ben. 2016. “The Aerial War on Yemen’s Economy.” New York Times, November 14, A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Gardner 2000).
This sentence cites two references (Gardner 2000; Hannonen and Sundström 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hannonen and Sundström 2003)
  • Three authors: (Li, Zhang, and Goldman 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Molofsky et al. 2003)

About the journal

Full journal titleCity & Community
AbbreviationCity Community
ISSN (print)1535-6841
ScopeUrban Studies

Other styles