How to format your references using the City & Community citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for City & Community. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Allen, Philip A. 2008. “From Landscapes into Geological History.” Nature 451(7176):274–76.
A journal article with 2 authors
Metrangolo, P. and G. Resnati. 2008. “Chemistry. Halogen versus Hydrogen.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 321(5891):918–19.
A journal article with 3 authors
Charrier, I., N. Mathevon, and P. Jouventin. 2001. “Mother’s Voice Recognition by Seal Pups.” Nature 412(6850):873.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Fiquet, G., J. Badro, F. Guyot, H. Requardt, and M. Krisch. 2001. “Sound Velocities in Iron to 110 Gigapascals.” Science (New York, N.Y.) 291(5503):468–71.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
PKF International Ltd. 2017. Wiley IFRS 2017 Interpretation and Application of IFRS Standards. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Klippel, John H., John H. Stone, Leslie J. Crofford, and Patience H. White, eds. 2010. The Pocket Primer on the Rheumatic Diseases. Second Edition. London: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Kneissl, Michael, Jens Rass, Lukas Schade, and Ulrich T. Schwarz. 2013. “Growth and Optical Properties of GaN-Based Non- and Semipolar LEDs.” Pp. 83–119 in III-Nitride Based Light Emitting Diodes and Applications, Topics in Applied Physics, edited by T.-Y. Seong, J. Han, H. Amano, and H. Morkoc. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for City & Community.

Blog post
Andrew, Elise. 2014. “1995 VHS Footage Captures Shocking Orca Incident At SeaWorld.” IFLScience. Retrieved October 30, 2018 (


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. 2002. Pipeline Safety and Security: Improved Workforce Planning and Communication Needed. GAO-02-785. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Dunn, Denise Nicole. 2015. “Non-Athlete Students’ Attitudes toward Student-Athletes: A Social Identity Approach.” Doctoral dissertation, University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Kishkovsky, Sophia. 2011. “Russia: Abortion Restrictions Signed.” New York Times, July 16, A5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Allen 2008).
This sentence cites two references (Allen 2008; Metrangolo and Resnati 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Metrangolo and Resnati 2008)
  • Three authors: (Charrier, Mathevon, and Jouventin 2001)
  • 4 or more authors: (Fiquet et al. 2001)

About the journal

Full journal titleCity & Community
AbbreviationCity Community
ISSN (print)1535-6841
ScopeUrban Studies

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