How to format your references using the Citizen Science: Theory and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Citizen Science: Theory and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Savage, N., 2015. Aerodynamics: Vortices and robobees, Nature, 521(7552): S64-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Pieters, J. and Ploegh, H., 2003. Microbiology. Chemical warfare and mycobacterial defense, Science (New York, N.Y.), 302(5652): 1900–1902.
A journal article with 3 authors
Qvarnström, A., Pärt, T. and Sheldon, B.C., 2000. Adaptive plasticity in mate preference linked to differences in reproductive effort, Nature, 405(6784): 344–347.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Teschner, D., Borsodi, J., Wootsch, A., Révay, Z., Hävecker, M., Knop-Gericke, A., Jackson, S.D. and Schlögl, R., 2008. The roles of subsurface carbon and hydrogen in palladium-catalyzed alkyne hydrogenation, Science (New York, N.Y.), 320(5872): 86–89.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McMillan, E.J., 2010. Not-for-Profit Budgeting and Financial Management. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
El-Salhy, M., 2015. Understanding and Controlling the Irritable Bowel. Hatlebakk, J.G. and Hausken, T. (eds.). Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Valdez-Hernández, M., González-Salvatierra, C., Reyes-García, C., Jackson, P.C. and Andrade, J.L., 2015. Physiological Ecology of Vascular Plants. In: Islebe, G.A., Calmé, S., León-Cortés, J.L., and Schmook, B. (eds.) Biodiversity and Conservation of the Yucatán Peninsula. Cham: Springer International Publishing. pp. 97–129.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Citizen Science: Theory and Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. British Soldiers Sent To Gabon To Help Tackle Ivory Poaching. IFLScience, 21 August 2015. Available at [Last accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1981. Review of the High Speed Antiradiation Missile Program.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gonzales, D.S., 2012. Identifying factors and quantifying their impact on transportation costs of pre-processes biomass. Doctoral dissertation. Mississippi State, MS: Mississippi State University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Bilefsky, D., 2017. Royal Retirement at 95 Halts Frenzied Rumors. New York Times, 4 May, A10.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Savage 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Pieters and Ploegh 2003; Savage 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Pieters and Ploegh 2003)
  • Three authors: (Qvarnström, Pärt and Sheldon 2000)
  • 4 or more authors: (Teschner et al. 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleCitizen Science: Theory and Practice
AbbreviationCitiz. Sci. Theory Pr.
ISSN (online)2057-4991

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