How to format your references using the Citizen Science: Theory and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Citizen Science: Theory and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Evarts, E.C., 2015. Lithium batteries: To the limits of lithium, Nature, 526(7575): S93-5.
A journal article with 2 authors
Gutnisky, D.A. and Dragoi, V., 2008. Adaptive coding of visual information in neural populations, Nature, 452(7184): 220–224.
A journal article with 3 authors
Matsuo, N., Reijmers, L. and Mayford, M., 2008. Spine-type-specific recruitment of newly synthesized AMPA receptors with learning, Science (New York, N.Y.), 319(5866): 1104–1107.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Vasudevan, R.K., Okatan, M.B., Rajapaksa, I., Kim, Y., Marincel, D., Trolier-McKinstry, S., Jesse, S., Valanoor, N. and Kalinin, S.V., 2013. Higher order harmonic detection for exploring nonlinear interactions with nanoscale resolution, Scientific reports, 3: 2677.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Battu, D., 2014. New Telecom Networks. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Niewöhner, J., Bruns, A., Hostert, P., Krueger, T., Nielsen, J.Ø., Haberl, H., Lauk, C., Lutz, J., and Müller, D. (eds.), 2016. Land Use Competition: Ecological, Economic and Social Perspectives. Human-Environment Interactions. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Ranawana, R. and Palade, V., 2007. A Neuro-Genetic Framework for Multi-Classifier Design: An Application to Promoter Recognition in DNA Sequences. In: Jain, L.C., Palade, V., and Srinivasan, D. (eds.) Advances in Evolutionary Computing for System Design. Studies in Computational Intelligence. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 71–94.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Citizen Science: Theory and Practice.

Blog post
Taub, B., 2016. Humans Can “See” Individual Photons, Claims Study. IFLScience, 20 July 2016. Available at [Last accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2007. DOD Schools: Additional Reporting Could Improve Accountability for Academic Achievement of Students with Dyslexia.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Arnold, J.M., 2009. Accountability in British Columbia: A case study connecting policy and practice. Doctoral dissertation. Phoenix, AZ: University of Phoenix.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Gustines, G.G., 2016. Marvel Shines a Spotlight on Women. New York Times, 22 July, C3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Evarts 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Evarts 2015; Gutnisky and Dragoi 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Gutnisky and Dragoi 2008)
  • Three authors: (Matsuo, Reijmers and Mayford 2008)
  • 4 or more authors: (Vasudevan et al. 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleCitizen Science: Theory and Practice
AbbreviationCitiz. Sci. Theory Pr.
ISSN (online)2057-4991

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