How to format your references using the Citizen Science: Theory and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Citizen Science: Theory and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Zhang, C.-T., 2013. A novel triangle mapping technique to study the h-index based citation distribution, Scientific reports, 3: 1023.
A journal article with 2 authors
Huppert, H.E. and Woods, A.W., 2002. The role of volatiles in magma chamber dynamics, Nature, 420(6915): 493–495.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lappala, A., Zaccone, A. and Terentjev, E.M., 2013. Ratcheted diffusion transport through crowded nanochannels, Scientific reports, 3: 3103.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sureshkumar, S., Todesco, M., Schneeberger, K., Harilal, R., Balasubramanian, S. and Weigel, D., 2009. A genetic defect caused by a triplet repeat expansion in Arabidopsis thaliana, Science (New York, N.Y.), 323(5917): 1060–1063.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Charalambides, C.A., 2016. Discrete q-Distributions. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Galanakis, I. and Dederichs, P.H. (eds.), 2005. Half-metallic Alloys: Fundamentals and Applications. Lecture Notes in Physics. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Zöller, M. and Jung, T., 2011. The Colorectal Cancer Initiating Cell: Markers and Their Role in Liver Metastasis. In: Brodt, P. (ed.) Liver Metastasis: Biology and Clinical Management. Cancer Metastasis – Biology and Treatment. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. pp. 89–127.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Citizen Science: Theory and Practice.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2016. NASA’s Attempt To Inflate First Expandable Habitat Postponed. IFLScience, 27 May 2016. Available at [Last accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1995. Strategic Airlift: Improvements in C-5 Mission Capability Can Help Meet Airlift Requirements.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Clément, V., 2017. From Adaptation to Transformation: A Resilience Perspective on Organizational Responses to Ecological Adversity. Doctoral dissertation. Washington, DC: George Washington University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pilon, M., 2013. The Dazzle of Neon. New York Times, 12 November, B12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Zhang 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Huppert and Woods 2002; Zhang 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Huppert and Woods 2002)
  • Three authors: (Lappala, Zaccone and Terentjev 2013)
  • 4 or more authors: (Sureshkumar et al. 2009)

About the journal

Full journal titleCitizen Science: Theory and Practice
AbbreviationCitiz. Sci. Theory Pr.
ISSN (online)2057-4991

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