How to format your references using the Citizen Science: Theory and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Citizen Science: Theory and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Ebert, D., 2011. Genomics. A genome for the environment, Science (New York, N.Y.), 331(6017): 539–540.
A journal article with 2 authors
Sherkow, J.S. and Greely, H.T., 2013. Genomics. What if extinction is not forever?, Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6128): 32–33.
A journal article with 3 authors
Lee, H., Chah, O.-K. and Sheen, J., 2011. Stem-cell-triggered immunity through CLV3p-FLS2 signalling, Nature, 473(7347): 376–379.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Amdam, G.V., Csondes, A., Fondrk, M.K. and Page, R.E., Jr, 2006. Complex social behaviour derived from maternal reproductive traits, Nature, 439(7072): 76–78.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Goudon, T., 2016. Mathematics for Modeling and Scientific Computing. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Zhou, J., 2011. Encyclopedia of Traditional Chinese Medicines - Molecular Structures, Pharmacological Activities, Natural Sources and Applications: Vol. 4: Isolated Compounds N-S. First. Xie, G. and Yan, X. (eds.). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.
A chapter in an edited book
Pechan, P., 2011. The Food Choices We Make. In: Renn, O., Watt, A., and Pongratz, I. (eds.) Safe or Not Safe: Deciding What Risks to Accept in Our Environment and Food. New York, NY: Springer. pp. 101–142.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Citizen Science: Theory and Practice.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2015. Study Reveals How Birth Order Influences Personality. IFLScience, 19 July 2015. Available at [Last accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1996. Reduction in Demonstration Project Funding.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Gomes, S., 2010. The Lanterman-Petris-Short Act and the effects of deinstitutionalization on the mentally ill. Doctoral dissertation. Long Beach, CA: California State University, Long Beach.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Greenhouse, L., 2006. Habeas Corpus Case Turns On Buttons Worn at Trial. New York Times, 18 April, A24.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Ebert 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Ebert 2011; Sherkow and Greely 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Sherkow and Greely 2013)
  • Three authors: (Lee, Chah and Sheen 2011)
  • 4 or more authors: (Amdam et al. 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleCitizen Science: Theory and Practice
AbbreviationCitiz. Sci. Theory Pr.
ISSN (online)2057-4991

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