How to format your references using the Citizen Science: Theory and Practice citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Citizen Science: Theory and Practice. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Pierrehumbert, R.T., 2004. High levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide necessary for the termination of global glaciation, Nature, 429(6992): 646–649.
A journal article with 2 authors
Towbin, J.A. and Bowles, N.E., 2002. The failing heart, Nature, 415(6868): 227–233.
A journal article with 3 authors
Talkington, M.W.T., Siuzdak, G. and Williamson, J.R., 2005. An assembly landscape for the 30S ribosomal subunit, Nature, 438(7068): 628–632.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Xiao, N., Chen, Y., Chen, A. and Feng, L., 2014. Enhanced bio-hydrogen production from protein wastewater by altering protein structure and amino acids acidification type, Scientific reports, 4: 3992.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lindahl, D., 2007. Emerging Real Estate Markets. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Martínez-Álvarez, F., Troncoso, A., Quintián, H., and Corchado, E. (eds.), 2016. Hybrid Artificial Intelligent Systems: 11th International Conference, HAIS 2016, Seville, Spain, April 18-20, 2016, Proceedings. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Cham: Springer International Publishing.
A chapter in an edited book
Zhou, J. and Wen, C., 2008. Multivariable Adaptive Control. In: Wen, C. (ed.) Adaptive Backstepping Control of Uncertain Systems: Nonsmooth Nonlinearities, Interactions or Time-Variations. Lecture Notes in Control and Information Sciences. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. pp. 51–64.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Citizen Science: Theory and Practice.

Blog post
Andrew, D., 2017. How Can We Predict The Hottest Year On Record When Weather Forecasts Are So Uncertain?. IFLScience, 18 January 2017. Available at [Last accessed 30 October 2018].


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1978. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Organization Organic Act.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Goldberg, D.S., 2010. Poly (amido amine) dendrimers: Transepithelial transport mechanisms and applications in oral drug delivery. Doctoral dissertation. College Park, MD: University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Mueller, B., Baker, A.L. and Southall, A., 2017. Attempted Murder Charge in Bronx Shooting of Boy on His 5th Birthday. New York Times, 6 June, A20.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Pierrehumbert 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Pierrehumbert 2004; Towbin and Bowles 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Towbin and Bowles 2002)
  • Three authors: (Talkington, Siuzdak and Williamson 2005)
  • 4 or more authors: (Xiao et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleCitizen Science: Theory and Practice
AbbreviationCitiz. Sci. Theory Pr.
ISSN (online)2057-4991

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