How to format your references using the Chiropractic & Manual Therapies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chiropractic & Manual Therapies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Kratky C. A coordinated approach is key for open access. Nature. 2013;500:503.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Wrachtrup J, Finkler A. Applied physics: Hybrid sensors ring the changes. Nature. 2014;512:380–1.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Ghaffari HO, Nasseri MHB, Young RP. Faulting of rocks in a three-dimensional stress field by micro-anticracks. Sci Rep. 2014;4:5011.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Korennykh AV, Egea PF, Korostelev AA, Finer-Moore J, Zhang C, Shokat KM, et al. The unfolded protein response signals through high-order assembly of Ire1. Nature. 2009;457:687–93.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Hanby M. No God, No Science? Oxford: Blackwell Publishing Ltd; 2013.
An edited book
1. Dehmer M, editor. Structural Analysis of Complex Networks. Boston, MA: Birkhäuser; 2011.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Kotzé P, Purgathofer P. Designing Design Exercises — From Theory to Creativity and Real-world Use. In: Kotzé P, Wong W, Jorge J, Dix A, Silva PA, editors. Creativity and HCI: From Experience to Design in Education. Boston, MA: Springer US; 2009. p. 42–59.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chiropractic & Manual Therapies.

Blog post
1. Fang J. Scientists Discover How Sleep Helps Memories Form [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. High Speed Ground Transportation: Financing Issues. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 1993 Mar. Report No.: T-RCED-93-14.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Le R. Three-Power Power System State Estimation Using Extended Kalman Filter with CompactRIO Implementation [Doctoral dissertation]. [Edwardsville, IL]: Southern Illinois University; 2015.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Chira S. Cosby Case Raises Issue Of Legal Bias. New York Times. 2017 Jun 20;C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChiropractic & Manual Therapies
AbbreviationChiropr. Man. Therap.
ISSN (online)2045-709X
ScopeComplementary and alternative medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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