How to format your references using the Chiropractic & Manual Therapies citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chiropractic & Manual Therapies. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
1. Ward MD. Materials science. Molecular fuel tanks. Science. 2003;300:1104–5.
A journal article with 2 authors
1. Linkerhand M, Gros C. Generating functionals for autonomous latching dynamics in attractor relict networks. Sci Rep. 2013;3:2042.
A journal article with 3 authors
1. Morgan AD, Gandon S, Buckling A. The effect of migration on local adaptation in a coevolving host-parasite system. Nature. 2005;437:253–6.
A journal article with 7 or more authors
1. Schwartz JC, Zhang X, Fedorov AA, Nathenson SG, Almo SC. Structural basis for co-stimulation by the human CTLA-4/B7-2 complex. Nature. 2001;410:604–8.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
1. Perera AH, Buse LJ. Ecology of Wildfire Residuals in Boreal Forests. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd; 2014.
An edited book
1. Zhang Z, Zhang SS, editors. Rechargeable Batteries: Materials, Technologies and New Trends. Cham: Springer International Publishing; 2015.
A chapter in an edited book
1. Qiao Y-L, Lu Z-M, Sun S-H. Texture Segmentation Using Kernel-based Techniques. In: Elleithy K, Sobh T, Mahmood A, Iskander M, Karim M, editors. Advances in Computer, Information, and Systems Sciences, and Engineering: Proceedings of IETA 2005, TeNe 2005, EIAE 2005. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands; 2006. p. 20–4.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chiropractic & Manual Therapies.

Blog post
1. Andrew E. Musician Composes Pi Song On Piano [Internet]. IFLScience. IFLScience; 2014 [cited 2018 Oct 30]. Available from:


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
1. Government Accountability Office. Applying Agreed-Upon Procedures: Fiscal Year 2008 Highway Trust Fund Excise Taxes. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office; 2008 Nov. Report No.: GAO-09-91R.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
1. Molina-Gutierrez E. Keys to my home: A grant proposal project [Doctoral dissertation]. [Long Beach, CA]: California State University, Long Beach; 2009.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
1. Greenhouse L. Justices Express Skepticism in a Discrimination Case. New York Times. 2007 Dec 4;A26.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by sequential numbers in square brackets:

This sentence cites one reference [1].
This sentence cites two references [1,2].
This sentence cites four references [1–4].

About the journal

Full journal titleChiropractic & Manual Therapies
AbbreviationChiropr. Man. Therap.
ISSN (online)2045-709X
ScopeComplementary and alternative medicine
Physical Therapy, Sports Therapy and Rehabilitation

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