How to format your references using the Child & Youth Care Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Child & Youth Care Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hanson, B. (2009). Light on the origin of man. Ardipithecus ramidus. Introduction. Science (New York, N.Y.), 326(5949), 60–61.
A journal article with 2 authors
Galonić, D. P., & Gin, D. Y. (2007). Chemical glycosylation in the synthesis of glycoconjugate antitumour vaccines. Nature, 446(7139), 1000–1007.
A journal article with 3 authors
Arlettaz, R., Jones, G., & Racey, P. A. (2001). Effect of acoustic clutter on prey detection by bats. Nature, 414(6865), 742–745.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Wallace, R. J., Rooke, J. A., Duthie, C.-A., Hyslop, J. J., Ross, D. W., McKain, N., et al. (2014). Archaeal abundance in post-mortem ruminal digesta may help predict methane emissions from beef cattle. Scientific reports, 4, 5892.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Bill Huitt, W. M. (2016). Bioprocessing Piping and Equipment Design. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Stahl, G. (Ed.). (2009). Studying Virtual Math Teams (Vol. 11). Boston, MA: Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Diamantis, V. I., Vaiopoulou, E., & Aivasidis, A. (2007). Fundamentals and Applications of Anaerobic Digestion For Sustainable Treatment of Food Industry Wastewater. In V. Oreopoulou & W. Russ (Eds.), Utilization of By-Products and Treatment of Waste in the Food Industry (pp. 73–97). Boston, MA: Springer US.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Child & Youth Care Forum.

Blog post
Fang, J. (2015, May 23). Ancient Arctic DNA Suggests That Dogs And Wolves Split 40,000 Years Ago. IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). A Summary of the Legislative Provisions of the Block Grants Created by the 1981 Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (No. IPE-83-2). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Azios, M. (2017). The College Experience of Stuttering: An Ethnographic Study (Doctoral dissertation). University of Louisiana, Lafayette, LA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
(nyt), S. K. (2004, December 22). World Briefing | Europe: Georgia: Towns Demand Electricity. New York Times, p. A12.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hanson 2009).
This sentence cites two references (Galonić and Gin 2007; Hanson 2009).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Galonić and Gin 2007)
  • Three or more authors: (Wallace et al. 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleChild & Youth Care Forum
AbbreviationChild Youth Care Forum
ISSN (print)1053-1890
ISSN (online)1573-3319
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)
Life-span and Life-course Studies

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