How to format your references using the Child & Youth Care Forum citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Child & Youth Care Forum. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteFind the style here: output styles overview
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Schiermeier, Q. (2003). Nobel laureate slams misconduct smear. Nature, 421(6925), 773.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hochedlinger, K., & Jaenisch, R. (2006). Nuclear reprogramming and pluripotency. Nature, 441(7097), 1061–1067.
A journal article with 3 authors
Peters, C. J., Fedida, D., & Accili, E. A. (2013). Allosteric coupling of the inner activation gate to the outer pore of a potassium channel. Scientific reports, 3, 3025.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Parfitt, S. A., Ashton, N. M., Lewis, S. G., Abel, R. L., Coope, G. R., Field, M. H., et al. (2010). Early Pleistocene human occupation at the edge of the boreal zone in northwest Europe. Nature, 466(7303), 229–233.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Schmidt, R. H., & Rodrick, G. E. (2005). Food Safety Handbook. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Vestergaard, M. C., Kerman, K., Hsing, I.-M., & Tamiya, E. (Eds.). (2015). Nanobiosensors and Nanobioanalyses. Tokyo: Springer Japan.
A chapter in an edited book
Lacomme, L., Demazeau, Y., & Dugdale, J. (2010). CLIC: An Agent-Based Interactive and Autonomous Piece of Art. In Y. Demazeau, F. Dignum, J. M. Corchado, & J. B. Pérez (Eds.), Advances in Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems: 8th International Conference on Practical Applications of Agents and Multiagent Systems (PAAMS 2010) (pp. 25–34). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Child & Youth Care Forum.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, February 4). Can Americans Have Both Environmental Preservation And Expanded Oil Drilling? IFLScience. IFLScience. Accessed 30 October 2018


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1982). Strong Central Management of Office Automation Will Boost Productivity (No. AFMD-82-54). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Randall, M. H. (2006). Information Technology Certification Programs and Perceptions of Attitude and Need by High School Principals, Information Technology Teachers, and Information Technology Professionals in Ohio (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Haberman, M., & Pear, R. (2017, March 9). Trump Jumps In, Trying to Propel Health Care Bill. New York Times, p. A1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Schiermeier 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Hochedlinger and Jaenisch 2006; Schiermeier 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hochedlinger and Jaenisch 2006)
  • Three or more authors: (Parfitt et al. 2010)

About the journal

Full journal titleChild & Youth Care Forum
AbbreviationChild Youth Care Forum
ISSN (print)1053-1890
ISSN (online)1573-3319
ScopeSocial Sciences (miscellaneous)
Life-span and Life-course Studies

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