How to format your references using the Child Abuse & Neglect citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Child Abuse & Neglect. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Aspinall, W. (2011). Check your legal position before advising others. Nature, 477(7364), 251.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mossel, E., & Vigoda, E. (2005). Phylogenetic MCMC algorithms are misleading on mixtures of trees. Science (New York, N.Y.), 309(5744), 2207–2209.
A journal article with 3 authors
Showalter, M. R., Hedman, M. M., & Burns, J. A. (2011). The impact of comet Shoemaker-Levy 9 sends ripples through the rings of Jupiter. Science (New York, N.Y.), 332(6030), 711–713.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Bethlem, H. L., Berden, G., Crompvoets, F. M., Jongma, R. T., van Roij AJ, & Meijer, G. (2000). Electrostatic trapping of ammonia molecules. Nature, 406(6795), 491–494.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Lindahl, D. (2008). Trump University Commercial Real Estate 101. John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Law, N. (2011). Educational Innovations Beyond Technology: Nurturing Leadership and Establishing Learning Organizations (A. Yuen & R. Fox, Eds.). Springer US.
A chapter in an edited book
Pickett, H. A., & Reddel, R. R. (2009). Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres in Human Cells. In K. Hiyama (Ed.), Telomeres and Telomerase in Cancer (pp. 127–148). Humana Press.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Child Abuse & Neglect.

Blog post
Hale, T. (2016, May 2). Can You Spot The Mistake In This Simple Viral Puzzle? IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (1995). Space Station: Estimated Total U.S. Funding Requirements (NSIAD-95-163). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Fanelli, R. M. (2017). Effects of Urbanization and Infiltration-Based Watershed Restoration on the Hydro-Ecology of Headwater Streams [Doctoral dissertation]. University of Maryland, College Park.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Pipher, M. (2014, December 27). Nebraska’s Lonely Progressives. New York Times, A17.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Aspinall, 2011).
This sentence cites two references (Aspinall, 2011; Mossel & Vigoda, 2005).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mossel & Vigoda, 2005)
  • Three authors: (Showalter et al., 2011)
  • 6 or more authors: (Bethlem et al., 2000)

About the journal

Full journal titleChild Abuse & Neglect
AbbreviationChild Abuse Negl.
ISSN (print)0145-2134
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Psychiatry and Mental health
Developmental and Educational Psychology

Other styles