How to format your references using the Child Abuse & Neglect citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Child Abuse & Neglect. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Raymond, J. (2013). Sexist attitudes: Most of us are biased. Nature, 495(7439), 33–34.
A journal article with 2 authors
Byers, J., & Dunn, S. (2013). Response to comments on “Bateman in nature: predation on offspring reduces the potential for sexual selection.” Science (New York, N.Y.), 340(6132), 549.
A journal article with 3 authors
Traag, V. A., Krings, G., & Van Dooren, P. (2013). Significant scales in community structure. Scientific Reports, 3, 2930.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Nowacki, M., Vijayan, V., Zhou, Y., Schotanus, K., Doak, T. G., & Landweber, L. F. (2008). RNA-mediated epigenetic programming of a genome-rearrangement pathway. Nature, 451(7175), 153–158.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Zelterman, D. (2005). Discrete Distributions: Applications in the Health Sciences. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
An edited book
Brada, J. C., & Wachtel, P. (Eds.). (2016). Global Banking Crises and Emerging Markets. Palgrave Macmillan UK.
A chapter in an edited book
Chakraborty, A., & Konar, A. (2009). Brain Imaging and Psycho-pathological Studies on Self-regulation of Emotion. In A. Konar (Ed.), Emotional Intelligence: A Cybernetic Approach (pp. 93–132). Springer.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Child Abuse & Neglect.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, July 28). Do Aliens Exist? SETI Video Explores The Chances Of Making First Contact. IFLScience; IFLScience.


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2004). National Aeronautics and Space Administration: Significant Actions Needed to Address Long-standing Financial Management Problems (GAO-04-754T). U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Stephens, T. (2012). The evolution of transformative communication patterns in 1-to-1 computing classrooms [Doctoral dissertation]. Pepperdine University.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
David Goodman, J., & Schweber, N. (2015, November 10). Gunman Kills One and Wounds Two Near Penn Station. New York Times, A19.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Raymond, 2013).
This sentence cites two references (Byers & Dunn, 2013; Raymond, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Byers & Dunn, 2013)
  • Three authors: (Traag et al., 2013)
  • 6 or more authors: (Nowacki et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleChild Abuse & Neglect
AbbreviationChild Abuse Negl.
ISSN (print)0145-2134
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Psychiatry and Mental health
Developmental and Educational Psychology

Other styles