How to format your references using the Child Abuse & Neglect citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Child Abuse & Neglect. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Chaudhury, A. (2005). Plant genetics: hothead healer and extragenomic information. Nature, 437(7055), E1; discussion E2.
A journal article with 2 authors
Chin, L., & Gray, J. W. (2008). Translating insights from the cancer genome into clinical practice. Nature, 452(7187), 553–563.
A journal article with 3 authors
Behn, M. D., Hirth, G., & Kelemen, P. B. (2007). Trench-parallel anisotropy produced by foundering of arc lower crust. Science (New York, N.Y.), 317(5834), 108–111.
A journal article with 8 or more authors
Alard, O., Luguet, A., Pearson, N. J., Griffin, W. L., Lorand, J.-P., Gannoun, A., … O’Reilly, S. Y. (2005). In situ Os isotopes in abyssal peridotites bridge the isotopic gap between MORBs and their source mantle. Nature, 436(7053), 1005–1008.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Dal Pont, J.-P., & Azzaro-Pantel, C. (2014). New Approaches to the Process Industries. Hoboken, NJ: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
An edited book
Martin, T. A., & Jiang, W. G. (Eds.). (2013). Tight Junctions in Cancer Metastasis (Vol. 19). Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands.
A chapter in an edited book
Donovan, G. T. (2014). Opening Proprietary Ecologies. In G. B. Gudmundsdottir & K. B. Vasbø (Eds.), Methodological Challenges When Exploring Digital Learning Spaces in Education (pp. 65–77). Rotterdam: SensePublishers.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Child Abuse & Neglect.

Blog post
Andrew, E. (2015, April 21). Vitamin Pills Could Increase Cancer Risk. Retrieved October 30, 2018, from


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office. (2003). Federally Funded Research at Institutions of Higher Education, an E-supplement to GAO-04-31 (No. GAO-04-223SP). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Garibay, O. (2017). Towards a hybrid approach to mariachi education - Bridging the gap between formal and informal transmission of musical culture (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Billard, M. (2010, April 22). Many Feet Shall Be Shod. New York Times, p. E5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Chaudhury, 2005).
This sentence cites two references (Chaudhury, 2005; Chin & Gray, 2008).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Chin & Gray, 2008)
  • Three authors: (Behn, Hirth, & Kelemen, 2007)
  • 6 or more authors: (Alard et al., 2005)

About the journal

Full journal titleChild Abuse & Neglect
AbbreviationChild Abuse Negl.
ISSN (print)0145-2134
ScopePediatrics, Perinatology, and Child Health
Psychiatry and Mental health
Developmental and Educational Psychology

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