How to format your references using the Chemistry & Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemistry & Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Graves, J.A.M., 2015. In retrospect: Twenty-five years of the sex-determining gene. Nature 528, 343–344.
A journal article with 2 authors
Doubleday, R., Wilsdon, J., 2012. Science policy: Beyond the great and good. Nature 485, 301–302.
A journal article with 3 authors
Turner, W.R., Oppenheimer, M., Wilcove, D.S., 2009. A force to fight global warming. Nature 462, 278–279.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Sánchez-Danés, A., Larsimont, J.-C., Liagre, M., Muñoz-Couselo, E., Lapouge, G., Brisebarre, A., Dubois, C., Suppa, M., Sukumaran, V., Del Marmol, V., Tabernero, J., Blanpain, C., 2018. A slow-cycling LGR5 tumour population mediates basal cell carcinoma relapse after therapy. Nature 562, 434–438.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Knuth, E., 2011. Trading Between the Lines. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Timmer, S., Urquiza, A. (Eds.), 2014. Evidence-Based Approaches for the Treatment of Maltreated Children: Considering core components and treatment effectiveness, Child Maltreatment, Contemporary Issues in Research and Policy. Springer Netherlands, Dordrecht.
A chapter in an edited book
Taraba, T., Mikusz, M., Herzwurm, G., 2014. A Comparative Perspective between Investors and Businesses Regarding Success Factors of E-Ventures at an Early-Stage, in: Lassenius, C., Smolander, K. (Eds.), Software Business. Towards Continuous Value Delivery: 5th International Conference, ICSOB 2014, Paphos, Cyprus, June 16-18, 2014. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 42–57.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemistry & Biology.

Blog post
O`Callaghan, J., 2017. The US Air Force’s Secret Space Plane Just Returned To Earth [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1997. Air Traffic Control: Improved Cost Information Needed to Make Billion Dollar Modernization Investment Decisions (No. AIMD-97-20). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Frederique, N.P., 2010. The effectiveness of school based intensive probation for reducing recidivism: An evaluation of Maryland’s Spotlight on Schools program (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Poniewozik, J., 2017. Fox Show Is Trump’s Two-Way Mirror. New York Times C1.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Graves, 2015).
This sentence cites two references (Doubleday and Wilsdon, 2012; Graves, 2015).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Doubleday and Wilsdon, 2012)
  • Three or more authors: (Sánchez-Danés et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemistry & Biology
ISSN (print)1074-5521

Other styles