How to format your references using the Chemistry & Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemistry & Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Kemp, M., 2003. Science in culture: Leonardo lifts off. Nature 421, 792.
A journal article with 2 authors
Berkovits, B.D., Mayr, C., 2015. Alternative 3’ UTRs act as scaffolds to regulate membrane protein localization. Nature 522, 363–367.
A journal article with 3 authors
Cook-Deegan, R., Chandrasekharan, S., Angrist, M., 2009. The dangers of diagnostic monopolies. Nature 458, 405–406.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Mobashir, M., Madhusudhan, T., Isermann, B., Beyer, T., Schraven, B., 2014. Negative interactions and feedback regulations are required for transient cellular response. Sci. Rep. 4, 3718.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Sharkh, S.M., Abusara, M.A., Orfanoudakis, G.I., Hussain, B., 2014. Power Electronic Converters for Microgrids. John Wiley & Sons, Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Curtin, R.T., Reynolds, P.D. (Eds.), 2009. New Firm Creation in the United States: Initial Explorations with the PSED II Data Set, International Studies in Entrepreneurship. Springer, New York, NY.
A chapter in an edited book
Thalhammer, V., 2014. E-Learning, in: Schmidt-Hertha, B., Krašovec, S.J., Formosa, M. (Eds.), Learning across Generations in Europe: Contemporary Issues in Older Adult Education. SensePublishers, Rotterdam, pp. 47–58.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemistry & Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Spike In Leprosy Cases Linked to Armadillos [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1987. [Comments on Federal Employee’s Entitlement to Relocation Expenses Pursuant to Proposed Transfer to FAA] (No. B-227236). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Roy Chowdhury, T., 2012. Tracking Carbon Flow during Methane Oxidation into Methanotrophs Using 13C-PLFA Labeling in Pulsing Freshwater Wetlands (Doctoral dissertation). Ohio State University, Columbus, OH.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Saslow, L., 2009. Sorting Out their Goals, and Options. New York Times WE7.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Kemp, 2003).
This sentence cites two references (Berkovits and Mayr, 2015; Kemp, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Berkovits and Mayr, 2015)
  • Three or more authors: (Mobashir et al., 2014)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemistry & Biology
ISSN (print)1074-5521

Other styles