How to format your references using the Chemistry & Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemistry & Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Graeber, M.B., 2010. Changing face of microglia. Science 330, 783–788.
A journal article with 2 authors
Martin, O.Y., Hosken, D.J., 2003. The evolution of reproductive isolation through sexual conflict. Nature 423, 979–982.
A journal article with 3 authors
Chen, Y.-Z., Huang, Z.-G., Lai, Y.-C., 2014. Controlling extreme events on complex networks. Sci. Rep. 4, 6121.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Cuchet-Lourenço, D., Eletto, D., Wu, C., Plagnol, V., Papapietro, O., Curtis, J., Ceron-Gutierrez, L., Bacon, C.M., Hackett, S., Alsaleem, B., Maes, M., Gaspar, M., Alisaac, A., Goss, E., AlIdrissi, E., Siegmund, D., Wajant, H., Kumararatne, D., AlZahrani, M.S., Arkwright, P.D., Abinun, M., Doffinger, R., Nejentsev, S., 2018. Biallelic RIPK1 mutations in humans cause severe immunodeficiency, arthritis, and intestinal inflammation. Science 361, 810–813.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Faticoni, T.G., 2006. The Mathematics of Infinity. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Floudas, C.A., Pardalos, P.M. (Eds.), 2009. Encyclopedia of Optimization, Second Edition. ed. Springer US, Boston, MA.
A chapter in an edited book
Holtzer, M., 2015. The Mold/Casting Interface Phenomena, in: Górny, M., Dańko, R. (Eds.), Microstructure and Properties of Ductile Iron and Compacted Graphite Iron Castings: The Effects of Mold Sand/Metal Interface Phenomena, SpringerBriefs in Materials. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 77–108.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemistry & Biology.

Blog post
Luntz, S., 2014. Solar Flare Filmed in Exquisite Detail [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2001. Pipeline Safety: Progress Made, but Significant Requirements and Recommendations Not Yet Complete (No. GAO-01-1075). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Ireland, K.S., 2017. The Role Family Communication Patterns Play in Shaping People’s Responses and Perceived Outcomes to Boundary Turbulence via Privacy Breaches in Their Personal Relationships (Doctoral dissertation). California State University, Long Beach, Long Beach, CA.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Casselman, B., 2017. Wealth Grew Broadly Over 3 Years, but Inequality Also Widened. New York Times B3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Graeber, 2010).
This sentence cites two references (Graeber, 2010; Martin and Hosken, 2003).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Martin and Hosken, 2003)
  • Three or more authors: (Cuchet-Lourenço et al., 2018)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemistry & Biology
ISSN (print)1074-5521

Other styles