How to format your references using the Chemistry & Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemistry & Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Hemker, K.J., 2004. Materials science. Understanding how nanocrystalline metals deform. Science 304, 221–223.
A journal article with 2 authors
Hammock, E.A.D., Young, L.J., 2005. Microsatellite instability generates diversity in brain and sociobehavioral traits. Science 308, 1630–1634.
A journal article with 3 authors
Sainsbury, S., Niesser, J., Cramer, P., 2013. Structure and function of the initially transcribing RNA polymerase II-TFIIB complex. Nature 493, 437–440.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Williams, T.F., Mirando, A.C., Wilkinson, B., Francklyn, C.S., Lounsbury, K.M., 2013. Secreted Threonyl-tRNA synthetase stimulates endothelial cell migration and angiogenesis. Sci. Rep. 3, 1317.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
McLeod, L.E., 2016. Leading with Noble Purpose. John Wiley & Sons, Inc, Hoboken, NJ.
An edited book
Quarteroni, A., 2006. Scientific Computing with MATLAB and Octave: Second Edition, Texts in Computational Science and Engineering. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Illibauer, C., Ziebermayr, T., Geist, V., 2016. Towards Rigid Actor Assignment in Dynamic Workflows, in: Felderer, M., Piazolo, F., Ortner, W., Brehm, L., Hof, H.-J. (Eds.), Innovations in Enterprise Information Systems Management and Engineering: 4th International Conference, ERP Future 2015 - Research, Munich, Germany, November 16-17, 2015, Revised Papers, Lecture Notes in Business Information Processing. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 62–69.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemistry & Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. Engaging The Public With Science Can Yield Unexpected Rewards [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1988. Production and Quality of Education Information (No. T-PEMD-88-4). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Cox, A.M., 2017. Functional Gain and Change Mechanisms in Post-Production Complex Systems (Doctoral dissertation). George Washington University, Washington, DC.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
LISA W. FODERARO; Reporting for this article was contributed by Ford Fessenden, as well as by Kathleen McGrory in Westchester, Akhtar, F., Sophia Chang on, Koblin, J., Nate Schweber in, Lazo, A., Connecticut, A.S. in, 2006. That Sound You Hear? The Market Coming Down to Earth. New York Times 14WC5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Hemker, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Hammock and Young, 2005; Hemker, 2004).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Hammock and Young, 2005)
  • Three or more authors: (Williams et al., 2013)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemistry & Biology
ISSN (print)1074-5521

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