How to format your references using the Chemistry & Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemistry & Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Collis, B., 2004. Farmers to pharmas. Nature 429, 10–13.
A journal article with 2 authors
Tikhonov, V.I., Volkov, A.A., 2002. Separation of water into its ortho and para isomers. Science 296, 2363.
A journal article with 3 authors
van Loenhout, M.T.J., de Grunt, M.V., Dekker, C., 2012. Dynamics of DNA supercoils. Science 338, 94–97.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Eelkema, R., Pollard, M.M., Vicario, J., Katsonis, N., Ramon, B.S., Bastiaansen, C.W.M., Broer, D.J., Feringa, B.L., 2006. Molecular machines: nanomotor rotates microscale objects. Nature 440, 163.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
Gao, J., 2015. Heterojunction Bipolar Transistors for Circuit Design. John Wiley & Sons Singapore Pte. Ltd, Singapore.
An edited book
Fujita, H., Guizzi, G. (Eds.), 2015. Intelligent Software Methodologies, Tools and Techniques: 14th International Conference, SoMet 2015, Naples, Italy, September 15-17, 2015. Proceedings, 1st ed. 2015. ed, Communications in Computer and Information Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham.
A chapter in an edited book
Chaudhuri, A., Ghosh, S.K., 2016. Possibility Theory for Operational Risk, in: Ghosh, S.K. (Ed.), Quantitative Modeling of Operational Risk in Finance and Banking Using Possibility Theory, Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 75–112.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemistry & Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2015. 10 Greatest Unsolved Mysteries In Physics [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 2016. Air Traffic Control: Experts’ and Stakeholders’ Views on Key Issues to Consider in a Potential Restructuring [Reissued on December 9, 2016] (No. GAO-17-131). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Zurheide, P.K., 2009. Hydromorphology of anomalous bright loamy soils on the mid-Atlantic coastal plain (Doctoral dissertation). University of Maryland, College Park, College Park, MD.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.
New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2016. Indians Open Wallet After Coming Up Short. New York Times D5.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Collis, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Collis, 2004; Tikhonov and Volkov, 2002).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Tikhonov and Volkov, 2002)
  • Three or more authors: (Eelkema et al., 2006)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemistry & Biology
ISSN (print)1074-5521

Other styles