How to format your references using the Chemistry & Biology citation style

This is a short guide how to format citations and the bibliography in a manuscript for Chemistry & Biology. For a complete guide how to prepare your manuscript refer to the journal's instructions to authors.

Using reference management software

Typically you don't format your citations and bibliography by hand. The easiest way is to use a reference manager:

PaperpileThe citation style is built in and you can choose it in Settings > Citation Style or Paperpile > Citation Style in Google Docs.
EndNoteDownload the output style file
Mendeley, Zotero, Papers, and othersThe style is either built in or you can download a CSL file that is supported by most references management programs.
BibTeXBibTeX syles are usually part of a LaTeX template. Check the instructions to authors if the publisher offers a LaTeX template for this journal.

Journal articles

Those examples are references to articles in scholarly journals and how they are supposed to appear in your bibliography.

Not all journals organize their published articles in volumes and issues, so these fields are optional. Some electronic journals do not provide a page range, but instead list an article identifier. In a case like this it's safe to use the article identifier instead of the page range.

A journal article with 1 author
Lewis, R., 2004. Driving back diabetes. Nature 430, 1064–1065.
A journal article with 2 authors
Mayr, G., Manegold, A., 2013. Can ovarian follicles fossilize? Nature 499, E1.
A journal article with 3 authors
Hori, S., Nomura, T., Sakaguchi, S., 2003. Control of regulatory T cell development by the transcription factor Foxp3. Science 299, 1057–1061.
A journal article with 4 or more authors
Ishii, H.A., Bradley, J.P., Dai, Z.R., Chi, M., Kearsley, A.T., Burchell, M.J., Browning, N.D., Molster, F., 2008. Comparison of comet 81P/Wild 2 dust with interplanetary dust from comets. Science 319, 447–450.

Books and book chapters

Here are examples of references for authored and edited books as well as book chapters.

An authored book
O’Kelly, M., Ratitch, B., 2014. Clinical Trials with Missing Data. John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, Chichester, UK.
An edited book
Jonker, W., Petković, M. (Eds.), 2006. Secure Data Management: Third VLDB Workshop, SDM 2006, Seoul, Korea, September 10-11, 2006. Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg.
A chapter in an edited book
Hamidi, F., Baljko, M., 2015. Makers with a Cause: Fabrication, Reflection and Community Collaboration, in: Streitz, N., Markopoulos, P. (Eds.), Distributed, Ambient, and Pervasive Interactions: Third International Conference, DAPI 2015, Held as Part of HCI International 2015, Los Angeles, CA, USA, August 2-7, 2015, Proceedings, Lecture Notes in Computer Science. Springer International Publishing, Cham, pp. 49–61.

Web sites

Sometimes references to web sites should appear directly in the text rather than in the bibliography. Refer to the Instructions to authors for Chemistry & Biology.

Blog post
Andrew, E., 2014. Jupiter’s Largest Moon Gets Mapped For the First Time [WWW Document]. IFLScience. URL’s-largest-moon-gets-mapped-first-time/ (accessed 10.30.18).


This example shows the general structure used for government reports, technical reports, and scientific reports. If you can't locate the report number then it might be better to cite the report as a book. For reports it is usually not individual people that are credited as authors, but a governmental department or agency like "U. S. Food and Drug Administration" or "National Cancer Institute".

Government report
Government Accountability Office, 1992. Remedial Education: Modifying Chapter 1 Formula Would Target More Funds to Those Most in Need (No. HRD-92-16). U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, DC.

Theses and dissertations

Theses including Ph.D. dissertations, Master's theses or Bachelor theses follow the basic format outlined below.

Doctoral dissertation
Thomack, A., 2017. Random Harmonic Polynomials (Doctoral dissertation). Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL.

News paper articles

Unlike scholarly journals, news papers do not usually have a volume and issue number. Instead, the full date and page number is required for a correct reference.

New York Times article
Wagner, J., 2017. Pitching Took Root After the Troubles Were Left Behind. New York Times D3.

In-text citations

References should be cited in the text by name and year in parentheses:

This sentence cites one reference (Lewis, 2004).
This sentence cites two references (Lewis, 2004; Mayr and Manegold, 2013).

Here are examples of in-text citations with multiple authors:

  • Two authors: (Mayr and Manegold, 2013)
  • Three or more authors: (Ishii et al., 2008)

About the journal

Full journal titleChemistry & Biology
ISSN (print)1074-5521

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